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Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models
CNR, Institute of Neuroscience-Roma, via del Fosso di Fiorano 64, I-00143 Roma, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 November 2010; in revised form: 17 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
Abstract: The action of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) at the neuromuscular junction has been extensively investigated and knowledge gained in this field laid the foundation for the use of BoNTs in human pathologies characterized by excessive muscle contractions. Although much more is known about the action of BoNTs on the peripheral system, growing evidence has demonstrated several effects also at the central level. Pain conditions, with special regard to neuropathic and intractable pain, are some of the pathological states that have been recently treated with BoNTs with beneficial effects. The knowledge of the action and potentiality of BoNTs utilization against pain, with emphasis for its possible use in modulation and alleviation of chronic pain, still represents an outstanding challenge for experimental research. This review highlights recent findings on the effects of BoNTs in animal pain models.
Keywords: botulinum toxin; SNARE; pain; animal model; analgesia; inflammatory pain; chronic pain; peripheral sensitization; central sensitization; retrograde axonal transport
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Pavone, F.; Luvisetto, S. Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models. Toxins 2010, 2, 2890-2913.
Pavone F, Luvisetto S. Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models. Toxins. 2010; 2(12):2890-2913.
Pavone, Flaminia; Luvisetto, Siro. 2010. "Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models." Toxins 2, no. 12: 2890-2913.