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Toxins 2010, 2(12), 2890-2913; doi:10.3390/toxins2122890
Review

Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models

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Received: 18 November 2010; in revised form: 17 December 2010 / Accepted: 20 December 2010 / Published: 21 December 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Therapeutics)
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Abstract: The action of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) at the neuromuscular junction has been extensively investigated and knowledge gained in this field laid the foundation for the use of BoNTs in human pathologies characterized by excessive muscle contractions. Although much more is known about the action of BoNTs on the peripheral system, growing evidence has demonstrated several effects also at the central level. Pain conditions, with special regard to neuropathic and intractable pain, are some of the pathological states that have been recently treated with BoNTs with beneficial effects. The knowledge of the action and potentiality of BoNTs utilization against pain, with emphasis for its possible use in modulation and alleviation of chronic pain, still represents an outstanding challenge for experimental research. This review highlights recent findings on the effects of BoNTs in animal pain models.
Keywords: botulinum toxin; SNARE; pain; animal model; analgesia; inflammatory pain; chronic pain; peripheral sensitization; central sensitization; retrograde axonal transport botulinum toxin; SNARE; pain; animal model; analgesia; inflammatory pain; chronic pain; peripheral sensitization; central sensitization; retrograde axonal transport
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pavone, F.; Luvisetto, S. Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models. Toxins 2010, 2, 2890-2913.

AMA Style

Pavone F, Luvisetto S. Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models. Toxins. 2010; 2(12):2890-2913.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pavone, Flaminia; Luvisetto, Siro. 2010. "Botulinum Neurotoxin for Pain Management: Insights from Animal Models." Toxins 2, no. 12: 2890-2913.


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