Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Multiple Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins: Pathogenicity, Superantigenic Activity, and Correlation to Antibiotic Resistance
Previous Article in Journal
Ochratoxin A Contamination of Food from Croatia
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics
Toxins 2010, 2(8), 2106-2116; doi:10.3390/toxins2082106

How Should Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreaks Be Characterized?

* ,
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Anses)–Food safety laboratory of Maisons-Alfort, European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci, 23 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2010 / Accepted: 5 August 2010 / Published: 10 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [170 KB, uploaded 10 August 2010]   |   Browse Figure


Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most common food-borne diseases and results from the ingestion of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) preformed in food by enterotoxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. To date, more than 20 SEs have been described: SEA to SElV. All SEs have superantigenic activity whereas only a few have been proved to be emetic, representing a potential hazard for consumers. Characterization of staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) has considerably progressed compared to 80 years ago, when staphylococci were simply enumerated and only five enterotoxins were known for qualitative detection. Today, SFPOs can be characterized by a number of approaches, such as the identification of S. aureus biovars, PCR and RT-PCR methods to identify the se genes involved, immunodetection of specific SEs, and absolute quantification by mass spectrometry. An integrated gene-to-protein approach for characterizing staphylococcal food poisoning is advocated.
Keywords: staphylococcal enterotoxin; food poisoning; enzyme immunoassay; molecular tools; mass spectrometry staphylococcal enterotoxin; food poisoning; enzyme immunoassay; molecular tools; mass spectrometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Hennekinne, J.-A.; Ostyn, A.; Guillier, F.; Herbin, S.; Prufer, A.-L.; Dragacci, S. How Should Staphylococcal Food Poisoning Outbreaks Be Characterized? Toxins 2010, 2, 2106-2116.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert