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Toxins 2010, 2(8), 2117-2131; doi:10.3390/toxins2082117

Multiple Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins: Pathogenicity, Superantigenic Activity, and Correlation to Antibiotic Resistance

Area de Microbiología, Departamento de Ciencias de la Salud, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Jaén, 23071-Jaén, Spain
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Received: 3 July 2010 / Accepted: 9 August 2010 / Published: 10 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
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Abstract

Heat-stable enterotoxins are the most notable virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus, a common pathogen associated with serious community and hospital acquired diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) cause toxic shock-like syndromes and have been implicated in food poisoning. But SEs also act as superantigens that stimulate T-cell proliferation, and a high correlation between these activities has been detected. Most of the nosocomial S. aureus infections are caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, and those resistant to quinolones or multiresistant to other antibiotics are emerging, leaving a limited choice for their control. This review focuses on these diverse roles of SE, their possible correlations and the influence in disease progression and therapy.
Keywords: enterotoxins; Staphylococcus aureus; superantigens; MRSA; immune response enterotoxins; Staphylococcus aureus; superantigens; MRSA; immune response
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ortega, E.; Abriouel, H.; Lucas, R.; Gálvez, A. Multiple Roles of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins: Pathogenicity, Superantigenic Activity, and Correlation to Antibiotic Resistance. Toxins 2010, 2, 2117-2131.

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