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Toxins 2010, 2(8), 2028-2054; doi:10.3390/toxins2082028
Review

Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics

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Received: 18 July 2010; Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [427 KB, uploaded 5 August 2010]
Abstract: Heat-stable toxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria cause endemic and traveler’s diarrhea by binding to and activating the intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Advances in understanding the biology of GC-C have extended ST from a diarrheagenic peptide to a novel therapeutic agent. Here, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological role of GC-C in fluid-electrolyte regulation and intestinal crypt-villus homeostasis, as well as describe translational opportunities offered by STs, reflecting the unique characteristics of GC-C, in treating irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, and in preventing and treating colorectal cancer.
Keywords: heat-stable enterotoxins (STa); guanylyl cyclase C; guanylin; uroguanylin; colorectal cancer; hormone insufficiency; hormone replacement therapy; tumor vaccine; irritable bowel syndrome; biomarker; targeted delivery heat-stable enterotoxins (STa); guanylyl cyclase C; guanylin; uroguanylin; colorectal cancer; hormone insufficiency; hormone replacement therapy; tumor vaccine; irritable bowel syndrome; biomarker; targeted delivery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lin, J.E.; Valentino, M.; Marszalowicz, G.; Magee, M.S.; Li, P.; Snook, A.E.; Stoecker, B.A.; Chang, C.; Waldman, S.A. Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Toxins 2010, 2, 2028-2054.

AMA Style

Lin JE, Valentino M, Marszalowicz G, Magee MS, Li P, Snook AE, Stoecker BA, Chang C, Waldman SA. Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Toxins. 2010; 2(8):2028-2054.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lin, Jieru E.; Valentino, Michael; Marszalowicz, Glen; Magee, Michael S.; Li, Peng; Snook, Adam E.; Stoecker, Brian A.; Chang, Chang; Waldman, Scott A. 2010. "Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics." Toxins 2, no. 8: 2028-2054.



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