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Toxins 2010, 2(8), 2028-2054; doi:10.3390/toxins2082028
Review

Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics

1,†
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1,†
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2,†
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1,†
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1,†
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1,†
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1,†
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2,3
 and
1,*
1 Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, 132 South 10th Street, 1170 Main, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA 2 School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA 3 Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2010 / Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
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Abstract

Heat-stable toxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria cause endemic and traveler’s diarrhea by binding to and activating the intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Advances in understanding the biology of GC-C have extended ST from a diarrheagenic peptide to a novel therapeutic agent. Here, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological role of GC-C in fluid-electrolyte regulation and intestinal crypt-villus homeostasis, as well as describe translational opportunities offered by STs, reflecting the unique characteristics of GC-C, in treating irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, and in preventing and treating colorectal cancer.
Keywords: heat-stable enterotoxins (STa); guanylyl cyclase C; guanylin; uroguanylin; colorectal cancer; hormone insufficiency; hormone replacement therapy; tumor vaccine; irritable bowel syndrome; biomarker; targeted delivery heat-stable enterotoxins (STa); guanylyl cyclase C; guanylin; uroguanylin; colorectal cancer; hormone insufficiency; hormone replacement therapy; tumor vaccine; irritable bowel syndrome; biomarker; targeted delivery
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Lin, J.E.; Valentino, M.; Marszalowicz, G.; Magee, M.S.; Li, P.; Snook, A.E.; Stoecker, B.A.; Chang, C.; Waldman, S.A. Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Toxins 2010, 2, 2028-2054.

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