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Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics
Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, 132 South 10th Street, 1170 Main, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
School of Biomedical Engineering, Science & Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2010; Accepted: 3 August 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
Abstract: Heat-stable toxins (STs) produced by enterotoxigenic bacteria cause endemic and traveler’s diarrhea by binding to and activating the intestinal receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C). Advances in understanding the biology of GC-C have extended ST from a diarrheagenic peptide to a novel therapeutic agent. Here, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological role of GC-C in fluid-electrolyte regulation and intestinal crypt-villus homeostasis, as well as describe translational opportunities offered by STs, reflecting the unique characteristics of GC-C, in treating irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation, and in preventing and treating colorectal cancer.
Keywords: heat-stable enterotoxins (STa); guanylyl cyclase C; guanylin; uroguanylin; colorectal cancer; hormone insufficiency; hormone replacement therapy; tumor vaccine; irritable bowel syndrome; biomarker; targeted delivery
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Lin, J.E.; Valentino, M.; Marszalowicz, G.; Magee, M.S.; Li, P.; Snook, A.E.; Stoecker, B.A.; Chang, C.; Waldman, S.A. Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Toxins 2010, 2, 2028-2054.
Lin JE, Valentino M, Marszalowicz G, Magee MS, Li P, Snook AE, Stoecker BA, Chang C, Waldman SA. Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics. Toxins. 2010; 2(8):2028-2054.
Lin, Jieru E.; Valentino, Michael; Marszalowicz, Glen; Magee, Michael S.; Li, Peng; Snook, Adam E.; Stoecker, Brian A.; Chang, Chang; Waldman, Scott A. 2010. "Bacterial Heat-Stable Enterotoxins: Translation of Pathogenic Peptides into Novel Targeted Diagnostics and Therapeutics." Toxins 2, no. 8: 2028-2054.