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Toxins 2010, 2(7), 1898-1912; doi:10.3390/toxins2071898

The Systemic and Pulmonary Immune Response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxins

Department of Immunology-MC3710, University of Connecticut Heath Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2010 / Accepted: 12 July 2010 / Published: 21 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [133 KB, 22 July 2010; original version 21 July 2010]


In response to environmental cues the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus synthesizes and releases proteinaceous enterotoxins. These enterotoxins are natural etiologic entities of severe food poisoning, toxic shock syndrome, and acute diseases. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are currently listed as Category B Bioterrorism Agents by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They are associated with respiratory illnesses, and may contribute to exacerbation of pulmonary disease. This likely stems from the ability of Staphylococcal enterotoxins to elicit powerful episodes of T cell stimulation resulting in release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we discuss the role of the immune system and potential mechanisms of disease initiation and progression.
Keywords: superantigen; T cells; staphylococcal enterotoxins superantigen; T cells; staphylococcal enterotoxins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumar, S.; Ménoret, A.; Ngoi, S.-M.; Vella, A.T. The Systemic and Pulmonary Immune Response to Staphylococcal Enterotoxins. Toxins 2010, 2, 1898-1912.

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