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Emergence of Anthrax Edema Toxin as a Master Manipulator of Macrophage and B Cell Functions
Department of Microbiology & Immunology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2010; in revised form: 6 July 2010 / Accepted: 12 July 2010 / Published: 19 July 2010
Abstract: Anthrax edema toxin (ET), a powerful adenylyl cyclase, is an important virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Until recently, only a modest amount of research was performed to understand the role this toxin plays in the organism’s immune evasion strategy. A new wave of studies have begun to elucidate the effects this toxin has on a variety of host cells. While efforts have been made to illuminate the effect ET has on cells of the adaptive immune system, such as T cells, the greatest focus has been on cells of the innate immune system, particularly the macrophage. Here we discuss the immunoevasive activities that ET exerts on macrophages, as well as new research on the effects of this toxin on B cells.
Keywords: anthrax; edema toxin; macrophage; B cell; cAMP signaling
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Gnade, B.T.; Moen, S.T.; Chopra, A.K.; Peterson, J.W.; Yeager, L.A. Emergence of Anthrax Edema Toxin as a Master Manipulator of Macrophage and B Cell Functions. Toxins 2010, 2, 1881-1897.
Gnade BT, Moen ST, Chopra AK, Peterson JW, Yeager LA. Emergence of Anthrax Edema Toxin as a Master Manipulator of Macrophage and B Cell Functions. Toxins. 2010; 2(7):1881-1897.
Gnade, Bryan T.; Moen, Scott T.; Chopra, Ashok K.; Peterson, Johnny W.; Yeager, Linsey A. 2010. "Emergence of Anthrax Edema Toxin as a Master Manipulator of Macrophage and B Cell Functions." Toxins 2, no. 7: 1881-1897.