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Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A
Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo., Ex-Hacienda de la Concepción. Tilcuautla. Pachuca de Soto, Hidalgo. CP 42080, México
Laboratorio de Genética, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, I.P.N., Av. Wilfrido Massieu. Unidad A. López Mateos. Zacatenco. Col Lindavista. D.F. CP 07738, México
Laboratorio de Toxicología Preclínica, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, I.P.N., Av. Wilfrido Massieu. Unidad A. López Mateos. Zacatenco. Col Lindavista. D.F. CP 07738, México
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2010; in revised form: 8 April 2010 / Accepted: 13 April 2010 / Published: 19 April 2010
Abstract: Mycotoxins are produced mainly by the mycelial structure of filamentous fungi, or more specifically, molds. These secondary metabolites are synthesized during the end of the exponential growth phase and appear to have no biochemical significance in fungal growth and development. The contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem for the adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. The toxic effect of the ingestion of mycotoxins in humans and animals depends on a number of factors including intake levels, duration of exposure, toxin species, mechanisms of action, metabolism, and defense mechanisms. In general, the consumption of contaminated food and feed with mycotoxin induces to neurotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effect in humans and/or animals. The most significant mycotoxins in terms of public health and agronomic perspective include the aflatoxins, ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, fumonisins, patulin, and the ergot alkaloids. Due to the detrimental effects of these mycotoxins, several strategies have been developed in order to reduce the risk of exposure. These include the degradation, destruction, inactivation or removal of mycotoxins through chemical, physical and biological methods. However, the results obtained with these methods have not been optimal, because they may change the organoleptic characteristics and nutritional values of food. Another alternative strategy to prevent or reduce the toxic effects of mycotoxins is by applying antimutagenic agents. These substances act according to several extra- or intracellular mechanisms, their main goal being to avoid the interaction of mycotoxins with DNA; as a consequence of their action, these agents would inhibit mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. This article reviews the main strategies used to control AFB1 and ochratoxin A and contains an analysis of some antigenotoxic substances that reduce the DNA damage caused by these mycotoxins.
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; ochratoxin A; antigenotoxic; DNA damage
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Madrigal-Santillán, E.; Morales-González, J.A.; Vargas-Mendoza, N.; Reyes-Ramírez, P.; Cruz-Jaime, S.; Sumaya-Martínez, T.; Pérez-Pastén, R.; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E. Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A. Toxins 2010, 2, 738-757.
Madrigal-Santillán E, Morales-González JA, Vargas-Mendoza N, Reyes-Ramírez P, Cruz-Jaime S, Sumaya-Martínez T, Pérez-Pastén R, Madrigal-Bujaidar E. Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):738-757.
Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José A.; Vargas-Mendoza, Nancy; Reyes-Ramírez, Patricia; Cruz-Jaime, Sandra; Sumaya-Martínez, Teresa; Pérez-Pastén, Ricardo; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo. 2010. "Antigenotoxic Studies of Different Substances to Reduce the DNA Damage Induced by Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A." Toxins 2, no. 4: 738-757.