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Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells
Institut Pasteur, Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, 25 rue du Dr Roux, F-757254, PARIS cedex 15, France
Neurotransmission et Sécrétion Neuroendocrine, CNRS UPR 2356 IFR 37 - Neurosciences, Centre de Neurochimie, 5, rue Blaise Pascal, F-67084 STRASBOURG cedex, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2010; in revised form: 18 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
Abstract: Toxins are potent molecules used by various bacteria to interact with a host organism. Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections. But many other toxins are multifunctional and recognize a wider range of cell types including neuronal cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, for example by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, in amplification of the diarrhea, or in intestinal inflammation process. Other toxins can pass the blood brain barrier and directly act on specific neurons.
Keywords: toxin; neurotoxin; enterotoxin; nervous system; actin cytoskeleton; small gtpases; neurotransmitter
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Popoff, M.R.; Poulain, B. Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells. Toxins 2010, 2, 683-737.
Popoff MR, Poulain B. Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):683-737.
Popoff, Michel R.; Poulain, Bernard. 2010. "Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells." Toxins 2, no. 4: 683-737.