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Toxins 2010, 2(4), 683-737; doi:10.3390/toxins2040683
Review

Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells

1,*  and 2
Received: 21 February 2010; in revised form: 18 March 2010 / Accepted: 7 April 2010 / Published: 15 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurotoxins of Biological Origin)
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Abstract: Toxins are potent molecules used by various bacteria to interact with a host organism. Some of them specifically act on neuronal cells (clostridial neurotoxins) leading to characteristics neurological affections. But many other toxins are multifunctional and recognize a wider range of cell types including neuronal cells. Various enterotoxins interact with the enteric nervous system, for example by stimulating afferent neurons or inducing neurotransmitter release from enterochromaffin cells which result either in vomiting, in amplification of the diarrhea, or in intestinal inflammation process. Other toxins can pass the blood brain barrier and directly act on specific neurons.
Keywords: toxin; neurotoxin; enterotoxin; nervous system; actin cytoskeleton; small gtpases; neurotransmitter toxin; neurotoxin; enterotoxin; nervous system; actin cytoskeleton; small gtpases; neurotransmitter
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Popoff, M.R.; Poulain, B. Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells. Toxins 2010, 2, 683-737.

AMA Style

Popoff MR, Poulain B. Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):683-737.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Popoff, Michel R.; Poulain, Bernard. 2010. "Bacterial Toxins and the Nervous System: Neurotoxins and Multipotential Toxins Interacting with Neuronal Cells." Toxins 2, no. 4: 683-737.



Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert