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Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin
INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, F-31027 Toulouse, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2010; in revised form: 4 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 5 April 2010
Abstract: Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, neurological and gastrointestinal outcomes. Assessment of the health risks due to patulin consumption by humans has led many countries to regulate the quantity in food. A full understanding of the molecular genetics of patulin biosynthesis is incomplete, unlike other regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes and fumonisins), although the chemical structures of patulin precursors are now known. The biosynthetic pathway consists of approximately 10 steps, as suggested by biochemical studies. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthesis was reported, containing characterized enzymes, a regulation factor and transporter genes. This review includes information on the current understanding of the mechanisms of patulin toxinogenesis and summarizes its toxicological effects.
Keywords: patulin; biosynthesis; polyketide; toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Puel, O.; Galtier, P.; Oswald, I.P. Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin. Toxins 2010, 2, 613-631.
Puel O, Galtier P, Oswald IP. Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):613-631.
Puel, Olivier; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P. 2010. "Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin." Toxins 2, no. 4: 613-631.