Toxins 2010, 2(4), 632-648; doi:10.3390/toxins2040632

The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism

1email, 1email, 1email, 1email, 2,3email and 1,2,* email
Received: 11 March 2010; in revised form: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Keywords: cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12
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MDPI and ACS Style

Snider, R.M.; McKenzie, J.R.; Kraft, L.; Kozlov, E.; Wikswo, J.P.; Cliffel, D.E. The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism. Toxins 2010, 2, 632-648.

AMA Style

Snider RM, McKenzie JR, Kraft L, Kozlov E, Wikswo JP, Cliffel DE. The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):632-648.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Snider, Rachel M.; McKenzie, Jennifer R.; Kraft, Lewis; Kozlov, Eugene; Wikswo, John P.; Cliffel, David E. 2010. "The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism." Toxins 2, no. 4: 632-648.

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