Next Article in Journal
Studies on Carcinogenic and Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Chicks
Previous Article in Journal
Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Broilers
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 632-648; doi:10.3390/toxins2040632
Article

The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism

1
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
2,3
 and
1,2,*
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2338 KB, uploaded 8 April 2010]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Keywords: cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12 cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Snider, R.M.; McKenzie, J.R.; Kraft, L.; Kozlov, E.; Wikswo, J.P.; Cliffel, D.E. The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism. Toxins 2010, 2, 632-648.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert