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Toxins 2010, 2(4), 632-648; doi:10.3390/toxins2040632

The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, VU Station B. Nashville, TN 37235-1822, USA
Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235-1809, USA
Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235-1809, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2010 / Revised: 31 March 2010 / Accepted: 6 April 2010 / Published: 8 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Multianalyte microphysiometry, a real-time instrument for simultaneous measurement of metabolic analytes in a microfluidic environment, was used to explore the effects of cholera toxin (CTx). Upon exposure of CTx to PC-12 cells, anaerobic respiration was triggered, measured as increases in acid and lactate production and a decrease in the oxygen uptake. We believe the responses observed are due to a CTx-induced activation of adenylate cyclase, increasing cAMP production and resulting in a switch to anaerobic respiration. Inhibitors (H-89, brefeldin A) and stimulators (forskolin) of cAMP were employed to modulate the CTx-induced cAMP responses. The results of this study show the utility of multianalyte microphysiometry to quantitatively determine the dynamic metabolic effects of toxins and affected pathways.
Keywords: cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12 cholera toxin; metabolism; multianalyte; microphysiometry; cyclic AMP; forskolin; PC-12
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Snider, R.M.; McKenzie, J.R.; Kraft, L.; Kozlov, E.; Wikswo, J.P.; Cliffel, D.E. The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism. Toxins 2010, 2, 632-648.

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