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Toxins 2018, 10(6), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10060219

Antimicrobial and Chemotactic Activity of Scorpion-Derived Peptide, ToAP2, against Mycobacterium massiliensis

1
Laboratório de Imunopatologia das Doenças Infecciosas, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde, Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia CEP 74605-050, Goiás, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Bacteriologia Molecular, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia CEP 74605-050, Goiás, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Neurofarmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília 70919-970, DF, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 May 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 30 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scorpion Toxins)
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Abstract

Mycobacterium massiliense is a rapid growing, multidrug-resistant, non-tuberculous mycobacteria that is responsible for a wide spectrum of skin and soft tissue infections, as well as other organs, such as the lungs. Antimicrobial peptides had been described as broad-spectrum antimicrobial, chemotactic, and immunomodulator molecules. In this study we evaluated an antimicrobial peptide derived from scorpion Tityus obscurus as an anti-mycobacterial agent in vitro and in vivo. Bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that the peptide ToAP2 have a conserved region similar to several membrane proteins, as well as mouse cathelicidin. ToAP2 inhibited the growth of four M. massiliense strains (GO01, GO06, GO08, and CRM0020) at a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 200 µM. MBC concentration used to treat infected macrophages was able to inhibit 50% of the bacterial growth of all strains. ToAP2 treatment of infected mice with bacilli reduced the bacterial load in the liver, lung, and spleen, similarly to clarithromycin levels (90%). ToAP2 alone recruited monocytes (F4/80low Gr1), neutrophils (F4/80 Gr1), and eosinophils (F4/80+ Gr1+). ToAP2, together with M. massiliense infection, was able to increase F4/80low and reduce the percentage of F4/80high macrophages when compared with infected and untreated mice. ToAP2 has in vitro anti-microbial activity that is improved in vivo due to chemotactic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; mycobacteria inhibition; Mycobacterium; monocyte; neutrophil antimicrobial peptide; mycobacteria inhibition; Mycobacterium; monocyte; neutrophil
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Marques-Neto, L.M.; Trentini, M.M.; das Neves, R.C.; Resende, D.P.; Procopio, V.O.; da Costa, A.C.; Kipnis, A.; Mortari, M.R.; Schwartz, E.F.; Junqueira-Kipnis, A.P. Antimicrobial and Chemotactic Activity of Scorpion-Derived Peptide, ToAP2, against Mycobacterium massiliensis. Toxins 2018, 10, 219.

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