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Toxins 2018, 10(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030115

Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice

1
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Beijing 100193 China
2
Wageningen Plant Research, P.O. Box 16, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
These authors contribute equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract

In recent years, Fusarium head blight (FHB) outbreaks have occurred much more frequently in China. The reduction of burning of the preceding crop residues is suggested to contribute to more severe epidemics as it may increase the initial inoculum. In this study, a large number of Fusarium isolates was collected from blighted wheat spikes as well as from rice stubble with perithecia originating from nine sampling sites in five provinces in Southern China. Fusarium asiaticum dominated both wheat and rice populations, although rice populations showed a higher species diversity. Chemotype analysis showed that rice is the preferred niche for NIV mycotoxin producers that were shown to be less virulent on wheat. In contrast, 3ADON producers are more prevalent on wheat and in wheat producing areas. The 3ADON producers were shown to be more virulent on wheat, revealing the selection pressure of wheat on 3ADON producers. For the first time, members of the Incarnatum-clade of Fusarium Incarnatum-Equiseti Species Complex (FIESC) were found to reproduce sexually on rice stubble. The pathogenicity of FIESC isolates on wheat proved very low and this may cause the apparent absence of this species in the main wheat producing provinces. This is the first report of the Fusarium population structure including rice stubble as well as a direct comparison with the population on wheat heads in the same fields. Our results confirm that the perithecia on rice stubble are the primary inoculum of FHB on wheat and that cropping systems affect the local Fusarium population. View Full-Text
Keywords: cropping system; Fusarium head blight; chemotype; rice stubble cropping system; Fusarium head blight; chemotype; rice stubble
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Yang, M.; Zhang, H.; Kong, X.; van der Lee, T.; Waalwijk, C.; van Diepeningen, A.; Xu, J.; Xu, J.; Chen, W.; Feng, J. Host and Cropping System Shape the Fusarium Population: 3ADON-Producers Are Ubiquitous in Wheat Whereas NIV-Producers Are More Prevalent in Rice. Toxins 2018, 10, 115.

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