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Toxins 2018, 10(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10030109

MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins

1
Department of Plant Pathology, Throckmorton Plant Sciences Center, 1712 Claflin Avenue, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
2
Institute for the Science of Food Production, National Research Council (ISPA-CNR), via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy
3
Laboratory of Applied Mycology and Phenomics, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Valentyn Vaerwyckweg 1, Campus Schoonmeersen—Gebouw C, 9000 Gent, Belgium
4
Department of the Science of Sustainable Vegetable Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Universitá Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via E. Parmense, 84-29122 Piacenza, Italy
5
Food and Feed Safety Research, Southern Regional Research Center, USDA-ARS, 1100 Robert E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans, LA 70124, USA
6
Departamento de Microbiología e Immunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Rutas 8 y 36, Km 601, Río Cuarto 5800, Córdoba, Argentina
7
Department of Bio-analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ottergemsesteenweg 460, Ghent University, 9000 Gent, Belgium
8
Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnology, National Research Council (CNR-IFN), via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome, Italy
9
Molecular Phytopathology and Mycotoxin Research, University of Goettingen, Grisebachstrasse 6, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany
10
Molecular Biotechnology Laboratory of Triticeae Crops, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Shizishan Street 1, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, China
11
Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
12
Laboratory of Food Toxicology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Food Science Area, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia Avenida Vicent Andres Estelles s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
13
Applied Mycology Group, Cranfield Soil and Agri-Food Institute, Cranfield University, College Road, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
14
Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology, Iowa State University, 160 Seed Science Center, Ames, IA 50011, USA
15
Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, P.O. Box 17011, Doornfontein Campus, Gauteng 2028, South Africa
16
Environmental Contaminants Laboratory, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale Umbria e Marche (IZSUM), via G. Salvemini 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy
17
Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Sciences, Universitá Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, via E. Parmense, 84-29122 Piacenza, Italy
18
Departamento de Microbiología e Immunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Rutas 8 y 36, Km 601, Río Cuarto 5800, Córdoba, Argentina
19
Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, USDA-ARS, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604, USA
20
Department of Food Technology and Agricultural Products, Universiti Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
21
Departamento de Microbiología e Immunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Físico-Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Rutas 8 y 36, Km 601, 5800 Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina
22
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands
23
European Union Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins, European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate F—Health, Consumers and Reference Materials, Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel, Belgium
24
Center for Analytical Chemistry, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources & Life Sciences—Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenzstrasse 20, A-3430 Tulln, Austria
25
London Research and Development Centre, Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada, 1391 Sandford Street, London, ON N5V 4T3, Canada
26
Biointeractions and Plant Health, Wageningen Plant Research, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 1, 6708PBWageningen, The Netherlands
27
Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xudong Second Road, Wuhan 430062, China
28
State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, No. 2 West Yuanmingyuan Road, Beijing 100193, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 26 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract

MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important. Four questions were posed for each research area, as well as two questions that were common to both discussions. Test kits, usually antibody based, were one major focus of the discussions at the Chemical Detection and Monitoring roundtable because of their many favorable features, e.g., cost, speed and ease of use. The second area of focus for this roundtable was multi-mycotoxin detection protocols and the challenges still to be met to enable these protocols to become methods of choice for regulated mycotoxins. For the genetic and biodiversity group, both the depth and the breadth of trending research areas were notable. For some areas, e.g., microbiome studies, the suggested research questions were primarily of a descriptive nature. In other areas, multiple experimental approaches, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, RNAi and gene deletions, are needed to understand the regulation of toxin production and mechanisms underlying successful biological controls. Answers to the research questions will provide starting points for developing acceptable prevention and remediation processes. Forging a partnership between scientists and appropriately-placed communications experts was recognized by both groups as an essential step to communicating risks, while retaining overall confidence in the safety of the food supply and the integrity of the food production chain. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibodies; biological control; communication with non-scientists; metabolomics; microbiome; multi-mycotoxin detection protocols; nominal group discussion technique; proteomics; transcriptomics antibodies; biological control; communication with non-scientists; metabolomics; microbiome; multi-mycotoxin detection protocols; nominal group discussion technique; proteomics; transcriptomics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Leslie, J.F.; Lattanzio, V.; Audenaert, K.; Battilani, P.; Cary, J.; Chulze, S.N.; De Saeger, S.; Gerardino, A.; Karlovsky, P.; Liao, Y.-C.; Maragos, C.M.; Meca, G.; Medina, A.; Moretti, A.; Munkvold, G.; Mulè, G.; Njobeh, P.; Pecorelli, I.; Perrone, G.; Pietri, A.; Palazzini, J.M.; Proctor, R.H.; Rahayu, E.S.; Ramírez, M.L.; Samson, R.; Stroka, J.; Sulyok, M.; Sumarah, M.; Waalwijk, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, H.; Logrieco, A.F. MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins. Toxins 2018, 10, 109.

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