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Toxins 2018, 10(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10010040

Molecular and Physiological Effects on the Small Intestine of Weaner Pigs Following Feeding with Deoxynivalenol-Contaminated Feed

1
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization-International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac), University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada
2
Prairie Swine Centre, Inc., Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada
3
Department of Animal and Poultry Science, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3, Canada
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Abstract

We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30–3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0.08) or average daily gain (ADG) (p > 0.10) but it did significantly reduce body weight over time relative to the control piglets (p < 0.05). Cytokine analysis after initial exposure to the DON-contaminated feed did not result in significant differences in serum interleukin (IL) IL1β, IL-8, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interferon (IFN)-γ. After day 24, no obvious changes in jejunum or ileum gut morphology, histology or changes in gene expression for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 genes. IL-8 showed a trend towards increased expression in the ileum in DON-fed piglets. A significant increase in gene expression for claudin (CLDN) 7 gene expression and a trend towards increased CLDN 2-expression was observed in the ileum in piglets fed the highly DON-contaminated wheat. Because CLDN localization was not negatively affected, we believe that it is unlikely that gut permeability was affected. Exposure to DON-contaminated feed did not significantly impact weaner piglet performance or gut physiology. View Full-Text
Keywords: ileum; jejunum; deoxynivalenol; piglet; contaminated feed; tight junction ileum; jejunum; deoxynivalenol; piglet; contaminated feed; tight junction
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Pasternak, J.A.; Aiyer, V.I.A.; Hamonic, G.; Beaulieu, A.D.; Columbus, D.A.; Wilson, H.L. Molecular and Physiological Effects on the Small Intestine of Weaner Pigs Following Feeding with Deoxynivalenol-Contaminated Feed. Toxins 2018, 10, 40.

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