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Special Issue "Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Isabelle P. Oswald

INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, 180 chemin de tournefeuille F-31027 Toulouse, France
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Guest Editor
Dr. Philippe Pinton

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse, Cedex, France
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Guest Editor
Dr. Imourana Alassane-Kpembi

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse, Cedex, France
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The intestine is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to gather the most recent advances related to the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine. Even though the mucosa is a major functional element of the intestinal integrity, increasing evidence suggests that other constituents, such as mucus and microbiota are involved. This Special Issue will, thus, not only take into consideration the effect of mycotoxins on the intestinal tissue, but will also address the most recent advances related to effect of these contaminants on mucus and microbiota. Papers dealing with animal models, intestinal explants, as well as cellular systems, are welcome. In this context, the omics data are encouraged. Both research papers and review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, are welcome.

Dr. Isabelle P. Oswald
Dr. Philippe Pinton
Dr Imourana Alassane-Kpembi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxin

  • intestine

  • cells

  • mucus

  • microbiota

  • human

  • animals

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Molecular and Physiological Effects on the Small Intestine of Weaner Pigs Following Feeding with Deoxynivalenol-Contaminated Feed
Toxins 2018, 10(1), 40; doi:10.3390/toxins10010040
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
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Abstract
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as
[...] Read more.
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30–3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0.08) or average daily gain (ADG) (p > 0.10) but it did significantly reduce body weight over time relative to the control piglets (p < 0.05). Cytokine analysis after initial exposure to the DON-contaminated feed did not result in significant differences in serum interleukin (IL) IL1β, IL-8, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interferon (IFN)-γ. After day 24, no obvious changes in jejunum or ileum gut morphology, histology or changes in gene expression for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 genes. IL-8 showed a trend towards increased expression in the ileum in DON-fed piglets. A significant increase in gene expression for claudin (CLDN) 7 gene expression and a trend towards increased CLDN 2-expression was observed in the ileum in piglets fed the highly DON-contaminated wheat. Because CLDN localization was not negatively affected, we believe that it is unlikely that gut permeability was affected. Exposure to DON-contaminated feed did not significantly impact weaner piglet performance or gut physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Open AccessArticle Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Permeability in Differentiated Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A Individually or Collectively
Toxins 2018, 10(1), 13; doi:10.3390/toxins10010013
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
PDF Full-text (3450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually or collectively increased the paracellular flux of lucifer yellow and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 and 40 kDa) and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance values in differentiated Caco-2 cells after 48 h of exposure, indicating increased epithelial permeability. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analysis revealed that AFM1, OTA, and their combination decreased the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins and disrupted their structures, namely, claudin-3, claudin-4, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) partially involved in the mycotoxins-induced disruption of intestinal barrier. The effects of a combination of AFM1 and OTA on intestinal barrier function were more significant (p < 0.05) than those of AFM1 and OTA alone, yielding additive or synergistic effects. The additive or synergistic effects of AFM1 and OTA on intestinal barrier function might affect human health, especially in children, and toxin risks should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Open AccessArticle Effects of Adding Clostridium sp. WJ06 on Intestinal Morphology and Microbial Diversity of Growing Pigs Fed with Natural Deoxynivalenol Contaminated Wheat
Toxins 2017, 9(12), 383; doi:10.3390/toxins9120383
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
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Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant. Growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal morphology, and the intestinal flora of bacteria and fungi were examined. The results showed that after consuming a DON-contaminated diet, the growth performance of the pigs decreased significantly (p < 0.05), the relative organ weight of the liver and kidney increased significantly (p < 0.05), and the integrity of the intestinal barrier was also impaired, though the toxic effects of the contaminated diets on growing pigs were relieved after adding Clostridium sp. WJ06. The data from MiSeq sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene suggested that the abundance of intestinal flora was significantly different across the three treatments. In conclusion, the application of Clostridium sp. WJ06 can reduce the toxic effects of DON and adjust the intestinal microecosystem of growing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
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Open AccessArticle Response of Intestinal Bacterial Flora to the Long-term Feeding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Mice
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 317; doi:10.3390/toxins9100317
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
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Abstract
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of
[...] Read more.
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, both genera and phyla of intestinal bacteria in the three treatment groups decreased. About one third of the total genera and one half of the total phyla remained in the high-dose group. The dominant flora were Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in all groups. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial flora among groups. Most bacteria decreased as a whole from the control to the high-dose groups, but several beneficial and pathogenic bacterial species increased significantly with increasing dose of AFB1. Thus, the conclusion was that intragastric feeding with 2.5~10 mg/mL AFB1 for 2 months could decrease the majority of intestinal bacterial flora and induce the proliferation of some intestinal bacteria flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

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