E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Mycotoxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 May 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Isabelle P. Oswald

INRA, UMR 1331 Toxalim, Research Center in Food Toxicology, 180 chemin de tournefeuille F-31027 Toulouse, France
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Philippe Pinton

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse, Cedex, France
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Dr. Imourana Alassane-Kpembi

Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRA, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, F-31027 Toulouse, Cedex, France
E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The intestine is the first target when ingesting mycotoxin-contaminated food or feed. The focus of this Special Issue of Toxins is to gather the most recent advances related to the effects of mycotoxins on the intestine. Even though the mucosa is a major functional element of the intestinal integrity, increasing evidence suggests that other constituents, such as mucus and microbiota are involved. This Special Issue will, thus, not only take into consideration the effect of mycotoxins on the intestinal tissue, but will also address the most recent advances related to effect of these contaminants on mucus and microbiota. Papers dealing with animal models, intestinal explants, as well as cellular systems, are welcome. In this context, the omics data are encouraged. Both research papers and review articles proposing novelties or overviews, respectively, are welcome.

Dr. Isabelle P. Oswald
Dr. Philippe Pinton
Dr Imourana Alassane-Kpembi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mycotoxin

  • intestine

  • cells

  • mucus

  • microbiota

  • human

  • animals

Published Papers (9 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-9
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Saccharomyces cerevisiae Boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome
Received: 13 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2045 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
[...] Read more.
Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most frequently occurring food contaminants. By inducing trans-activation of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the stability of their mRNA, trichothecene can impair intestinal health. Several yeast products, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have the potential for improving the enteric health of piglets, but little is known about the mechanisms by which the administration of yeast counteracts the DON-induced intestinal alterations. Using a pig jejunum explant model, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed to decipher the early response of the small intestine to the deleterious effects of DON after administration of S. cerevisiae boulardii strain CNCM I-1079. Compared to the control condition, no differentially expressed gene (DE) was observed after treatment by yeast only. By contrast, 3619 probes—corresponding to 2771 genes—were differentially expressed following exposure to DON, and 32 signaling pathways were identified from the IPA software functional analysis of the set of DE genes. When the intestinal explants were treated with S. cerevisiae boulardii prior to DON exposure, the number of DE genes decreased by half (1718 probes corresponding to 1384 genes). Prototypical inflammation signaling pathways triggered by DON, including NF-κB and p38 MAPK, were reversed, although the yeast demonstrated limited efficacy toward some other pathways. S. cerevisiae boulardii also restored the lipid metabolism signaling pathway, and reversed the down-regulation of the antioxidant action of vitamin C signaling pathway. The latter effect could reduce the burden of DON-induced oxidative stress. Altogether, the results show that S. cerevisiae boulardii reduces the DON-induced alteration of intestinal transcriptome, and point to new mechanisms for the healing of tissue injury by yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Ergot Alkaloids at Doses Close to EU Regulatory Limits Induce Alterations of the Liver and Intestine
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 7 April 2018 / Accepted: 17 April 2018 / Published: 1 May 2018
PDF Full-text (5333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North America and Europe in recent years. These toxins are well known for their effects on the circulatory and nervous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate
[...] Read more.
An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North America and Europe in recent years. These toxins are well known for their effects on the circulatory and nervous systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of EAs on the liver and on the intestine using the pig both as a target species and as a non-rodent model for human. Three groups of 24 weaned piglets were exposed for 28 days to control feed or feed contaminated with 1.2 or 2.5 g of sclerotia/kg, i.e., at doses close to EU regulatory limits. Contaminated diets significantly reduced feed intake and consequently growth performance. In the liver, alteration of the tissue, including development of inflammatory infiltrates, vacuolization, apoptosis and necrosis of hepatocytes as well as presence of enlarged hepatocytes (megalocytes) were observed. In the jejunum, EAs reduced villi height and increased damage to the epithelium, reduced the number of mucus-producing cells and upregulated mRNA coding for different tight junction proteins such as claudins 3 and 4. In conclusion, in term of animal health, our data indicate that feed contaminated at the regulatory limits induces lesions in liver and intestine suggesting that this limit should be lowered for pigs. In term of human health, we establish a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 100 μg/kg body weight (bw) per day, lower than the benchmark dose limit (BMDL) retained by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to set the tolerable daily intake, suggesting also that regulatory limit should be revised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
PDF Full-text (48082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins
[...] Read more.
The contamination of feed with mycotoxins results in reduced growth, feed refusal, immunosuppression, and health problems. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) are among the most important mycotoxins. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of low doses of these mycotoxins on the histological structure and ultrastructure of the large intestine in the pig. The study was performed on 36 immature gilts of mixed breed (White Polish Big × Polish White Earhanging), which were divided into four groups administrated per os with ZEN at 40 µg/kg BW, DON at 12 µg/kg BW, a mixture of ZEN (40 µg/kg BW) and DON (12 µg/kg BW) or a placebo. The pigs were killed by intravenous overdose of pentobarbital after one, three, and six weeks of treatment. The cecum, ascending and descending colon samples were prepared for light and electron microscopy. Administration of toxins did not influence the architecture of the mucosa and submucosa in the large intestine. ZEN and ZEN + DON significantly decreased the number of goblet cells in the cecum and descending colon. The mycotoxins changed the number of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the large intestine, which usually increased in number. However, this effect differed between the intestine segments and toxins. Mycotoxins induced some changes in the ultrastructure of the mucosal epithelium. They did not affect the expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen and the intestinal barrier permeability. The obtained results indicate that mycotoxins especially ZEN may influence the defense mechanisms of the large intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1a

Open AccessArticle The Impact of T-2 Toxin on Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Like Immunoreactive (VIP-LI) Nerve Structures in the Wall of the Porcine Stomach and Duodenum
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 26 March 2018
PDF Full-text (82001 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of some Fusarium species. It is well-known that this substance can harmfully impact living organisms. Among others, thanks to the ability of crossing the blood–brain barrier, T-2 toxin can affect the central nervous system. Mycotoxins mostly get
[...] Read more.
T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of some Fusarium species. It is well-known that this substance can harmfully impact living organisms. Among others, thanks to the ability of crossing the blood–brain barrier, T-2 toxin can affect the central nervous system. Mycotoxins mostly get into the organism through the digestive tract; therefore, first of all they have to break the intestinal barrier, wherein the important component is the enteric nervous system (ENS). However, knowledge about the impact of T-2 toxin on the ENS is rather scant. As a result of the influence of various physiological and pathological agents, ENS can undergo adaptive and reparative processes which manifest as changes in the immunoreactivity of perikaryons for neuronal active substances. So, the aim of the present investigation was to study how low doses of T-2 toxin affect vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactive (VIP-LI) nervous structures in the ENS of the porcine stomach and duodenum. Obtained results have shown that T-2 toxin causes an percentage increase of VIP-LI nerve cells and nerve fibers in every enteric plexus in both fragments of gastrointestinal tract studied. This shows that even low doses of T-2 toxin can have an influence on living organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Histopathological Injuries, Ultrastructural Changes, and Depressed TLR Expression in the Small Intestine of Broiler Chickens with Aflatoxin B1
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 16 March 2018 / Accepted: 18 March 2018 / Published: 21 March 2018
PDF Full-text (5830 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To explore AFB1-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB
[...] Read more.
To explore AFB1-induced damage of the small intestine, the changes in structure and expression of TLRs (Toll-like Receptors) in the small intestine of chickens were systematically investigated. Ninety healthy neonatal Cobb chickens were randomized into a control group (0 mg/kg AFB1) and an AFB1 group (0.6 mg/kg AFB1). The crypt depth of the small intestine in the AFB1 group was significantly increased in comparison to the control chickens, while the villus height and area were evidently decreased, as well as the villus:crypt ratio and epithelial thickness. The histopathological observations showed that the villi of the small intestine exposed to AFB1 were obviously shedding. Based on ultrastructural observation, the absorptive cells of small intestine in the AFB1 group exhibited fewer microvilli, mitochondrial vacuolation and the disappearance of mitochondrial cristae, and junctional complexes as well as terminal web. Moreover, the number of goblet cells in the small intestine in the AFB1 group significantly decreased. Also, AFB1 evidently decreased the mRNA expression of TLR2-2, TLR4, and TLR7 in the small intestine. Taken together, our study indicated that dietary 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 could induce histopathological injuries and ultrastructural changes, and depress levels of TLR mRNA in the chicken small intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Molecular and Physiological Effects on the Small Intestine of Weaner Pigs Following Feeding with Deoxynivalenol-Contaminated Feed
Received: 23 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
PDF Full-text (5724 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as
[...] Read more.
We intended to assess how exposure of piglets to deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed impacted their growth, immune response and gut development. Piglets were fed traditional Phase I, Phase II and Phase III diets with the control group receiving 0.20–0.40 ppm DON (referred to as the Control group) and treatment group receiving much higher level of DON-contaminated wheat (3.30–3.80 ppm; referred to as DON-contaminated group). Feeding a DON-contaminated diet had no impact on average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p < 0.08) or average daily gain (ADG) (p > 0.10) but it did significantly reduce body weight over time relative to the control piglets (p < 0.05). Cytokine analysis after initial exposure to the DON-contaminated feed did not result in significant differences in serum interleukin (IL) IL1β, IL-8, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or interferon (IFN)-γ. After day 24, no obvious changes in jejunum or ileum gut morphology, histology or changes in gene expression for IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNFα, or Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 genes. IL-8 showed a trend towards increased expression in the ileum in DON-fed piglets. A significant increase in gene expression for claudin (CLDN) 7 gene expression and a trend towards increased CLDN 2-expression was observed in the ileum in piglets fed the highly DON-contaminated wheat. Because CLDN localization was not negatively affected, we believe that it is unlikely that gut permeability was affected. Exposure to DON-contaminated feed did not significantly impact weaner piglet performance or gut physiology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Permeability in Differentiated Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A Individually or Collectively
Received: 10 November 2017 / Revised: 23 December 2017 / Accepted: 25 December 2017 / Published: 27 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3450 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually
[...] Read more.
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however, their effects on intestinal epithelial cells have not been reported. In the present study, we show that AFM1 (0.12 and 12 μM) and OTA (0.2 and 20 μM) individually or collectively increased the paracellular flux of lucifer yellow and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 and 40 kDa) and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance values in differentiated Caco-2 cells after 48 h of exposure, indicating increased epithelial permeability. Immunoblotting and immunofluorescent analysis revealed that AFM1, OTA, and their combination decreased the expression levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins and disrupted their structures, namely, claudin-3, claudin-4, occludin, and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) partially involved in the mycotoxins-induced disruption of intestinal barrier. The effects of a combination of AFM1 and OTA on intestinal barrier function were more significant (p < 0.05) than those of AFM1 and OTA alone, yielding additive or synergistic effects. The additive or synergistic effects of AFM1 and OTA on intestinal barrier function might affect human health, especially in children, and toxin risks should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Effects of Adding Clostridium sp. WJ06 on Intestinal Morphology and Microbial Diversity of Growing Pigs Fed with Natural Deoxynivalenol Contaminated Wheat
Toxins 2017, 9(12), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9120383
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 2 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 27 November 2017
PDF Full-text (5187 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was
[...] Read more.
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly detected in cereals, and is a threat to human and animal health. The effects of microbiological detoxification are now being widely studied. A total of 24 pigs (over four months) were randomly divided into three treatments. Treatment A was fed with a basal diet as the control group. Treatment B was fed with naturally DON-contaminated wheat as a negative control group. Treatment C was fed with a contaminated diet that also had Clostridium sp. WJ06, which was used as a detoxicant. Growth performance, relative organ weight, intestinal morphology, and the intestinal flora of bacteria and fungi were examined. The results showed that after consuming a DON-contaminated diet, the growth performance of the pigs decreased significantly (p < 0.05), the relative organ weight of the liver and kidney increased significantly (p < 0.05), and the integrity of the intestinal barrier was also impaired, though the toxic effects of the contaminated diets on growing pigs were relieved after adding Clostridium sp. WJ06. The data from MiSeq sequencing of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene suggested that the abundance of intestinal flora was significantly different across the three treatments. In conclusion, the application of Clostridium sp. WJ06 can reduce the toxic effects of DON and adjust the intestinal microecosystem of growing pigs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Response of Intestinal Bacterial Flora to the Long-term Feeding of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Mice
Toxins 2017, 9(10), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9100317
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 30 September 2017 / Published: 12 October 2017
PDF Full-text (2209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of
[...] Read more.
In order to investigate the influence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on intestinal bacterial flora, 24 Kunming mice (KM mice) were randomly placed into four groups, which were labeled as control, low-dose, medium-dose, and high-dose groups. They were fed intragastrically with 0.4 mL of 0 mg/L, 2.5 mg/L, 4 mg/L, or 10 mg/L of AFB1 solutions, twice a day for 2 months. The hypervariable region V3 + V4 on 16S rDNA of intestinal bacterial flora was sequenced by the use of a high-flux sequencing system on a Miseq Illumina platform; then, the obtained sequences were analyzed. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, both genera and phyla of intestinal bacteria in the three treatment groups decreased. About one third of the total genera and one half of the total phyla remained in the high-dose group. The dominant flora were Lactobacillus and Bacteroides in all groups. There were significant differences in the relative abundance of intestinal bacterial flora among groups. Most bacteria decreased as a whole from the control to the high-dose groups, but several beneficial and pathogenic bacterial species increased significantly with increasing dose of AFB1. Thus, the conclusion was that intragastric feeding with 2.5~10 mg/mL AFB1 for 2 months could decrease the majority of intestinal bacterial flora and induce the proliferation of some intestinal bacteria flora. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top