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Toxins 2009, 1(2), 123-133; doi:10.3390/toxins1020123
Review

Actin Crosslinking Toxins of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Received: 2 November 2009 / Revised: 13 November 2009 / Accepted: 26 November 2009 / Published: 1 December 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Protein Toxins)
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Abstract

Actin crosslinking toxins produced by Gram-negative bacteria represent a small but unique class of bacterial protein toxins. For each of these toxins, a discrete actin crosslinking domain (ACD) that is a distant member of the ATP-dependent glutamine synthetase family of protein ligases is translocated to the eukaryotic cell cytosol. This domain then incorporates a glutamate-lysine crosslink between actin monomers, resulting in destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Recent studies argue that the function of these toxins during infection is not destruction of epithelial layers, but rather may specifically target phagocytic cells to promote survival of bacteria after the onset of innate immune defenses. This review will summarize key experiments performed over the past 10 years to reveal the function of these toxins.
Keywords: bacterial protein toxin; Vibrio; MARTX; VgrG; actin; ACD bacterial protein toxin; Vibrio; MARTX; VgrG; actin; ACD
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Satchell, K.J.F. Actin Crosslinking Toxins of Gram-Negative Bacteria. Toxins 2009, 1, 123-133.

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