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CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks
Laboratory of Biology and Biotechnology of Microorganisms, Microbiology and Toxicology Environmental Unit, Faculty of Sciences Semlalia, University Cadi Ayyad, B.P. 2390, Marrakesh 40 000, Morocco
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 September 2009; in revised form: 19 November 2009 / Accepted: 23 November 2009 / Published: 25 November 2009
Abstract: The world-wide occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria blooms “CyanoHAB” in fresh and brackish waters creates problems for all life forms. During CyanoHAB events, toxic cyanobacteria produce cyanotoxins at high levels that can cause chronic and sub-chronic toxicities to animals, plants and humans. Cyanotoxicity in eukaryotes has been mainly focused on animals, but during these last years, data, related to cyanotoxin (mainly microcystins, MCs) impact on both aquatic and terrestrials crop plants irrigated by water containing these toxins, have become more and more available. This last cited fact is gaining importance since plants could in a direct or indirect manner contribute to cyanotoxin transfer through the food chain, and thus constitute a potent health risk source. The use of this contaminated irrigation water can also have an economical impact which appears by a reduction of the germination rate of seeds, and alteration of the quality and the productivity of crop plants. The main objective of this work was to discuss the eventual phytotoxicity of cyanotoxins (microcystins) as the major agricultural impacts induced by the use of contaminated water for plant irrigation. These investigations confirm the harmful effects (ecological, eco-physiological, socio-economical and sanitary risk) of dissolved MCs on agricultural plants. Thus, cyanotoxin phytotoxicity strongly suggests a need for the surveillance of CyanoHAB and the monitoring of water irrigation quality as well as for drinking water.
Keywords: crop plants; CyanoHAB; health hazard; microcystins (MCs); phytotoxicity; water irrigation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Saqrane, S.; Oudra, B. CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks. Toxins 2009, 1, 113-122.
Saqrane S, Oudra B. CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks. Toxins. 2009; 1(2):113-122.
Saqrane, Sana; Oudra, Brahim. 2009. "CyanoHAB Occurrence and Water Irrigation Cyanotoxin Contamination: Ecological Impacts and Potential Health Risks." Toxins 1, no. 2: 113-122.