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Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 997; doi:10.3390/nu9090997

Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking

1
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
2
Lipid and Diabetes Research Group, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
3
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
4
Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch 8011, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Vitamin C (ascorbate) is an essential micronutrient in humans, being required for a number of important biological functions via acting as an enzymatic cofactor and reducing agent. There is some evidence to suggest that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have lower plasma vitamin C concentrations compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). The aim of this study was to investigate plasma vitamin C concentrations across the glycaemic spectrum and to explore correlations with indices of metabolic health. This is a cross-sectional observational pilot study in adults across the glycaemic spectrum from NGT to T2DM. Demographic and anthropometric data along with information on physical activity were collected and participants were asked to complete a four-day weighed food diary. Venous blood samples were collected and glycaemic indices, plasma vitamin C concentrations, hormone tests, lipid profiles, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were analysed. A total of 89 participants completed the study, including individuals with NGT (n = 35), prediabetes (n = 25), and T2DM managed by diet alone or on a regimen of Metformin only (n = 29). Plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly lower in individuals with T2DM compared to those with NGT (41.2 µmol/L versus 57.4 µmol/L, p < 0.05) and a higher proportion of vitamin C deficiency (i.e. <11.0 µmol/L) was observed in both the prediabetes and T2DM groups. The results showed fasting glucose (p = 0.001), BMI (p = 0.001), smoking history (p = 0.003), and dietary vitamin C intake (p = 0.032) to be significant independent predictors of plasma vitamin C concentrations. In conclusion, these results suggest that adults with a history of smoking, prediabetes or T2DM, and/or obesity, have greater vitamin C requirements. Future research is required to investigate whether eating more vitamin C rich foods and/or taking vitamin C supplements may reduce the risk of progression to, and/or complications associated with, T2DM. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin C; glycaemic control; metabolic health; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes mellitus vitamin C; glycaemic control; metabolic health; prediabetes; type 2 diabetes mellitus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wilson, R.; Willis, J.; Gearry, R.; Skidmore, P.; Fleming, E.; Frampton, C.; Carr, A. Inadequate Vitamin C Status in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Associations with Glycaemic Control, Obesity, and Smoking. Nutrients 2017, 9, 997.

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