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Nutrients 2017, 9(11), 1211; doi:10.3390/nu9111211

Vitamin C and Immune Function

1
Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, P.O. Box 4345, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
2
Bayer Consumer Care Ltd., Peter-Merian-Strasse 84, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 3 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient for humans, with pleiotropic functions related to its ability to donate electrons. It is a potent antioxidant and a cofactor for a family of biosynthetic and gene regulatory enzymes. Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C supports epithelial barrier function against pathogens and promotes the oxidant scavenging activity of the skin, thereby potentially protecting against environmental oxidative stress. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. It is also needed for apoptosis and clearance of the spent neutrophils from sites of infection by macrophages, thereby decreasing necrosis/NETosis and potential tissue damage. The role of vitamin C in lymphocytes is less clear, but it has been shown to enhance differentiation and proliferation of B- and T-cells, likely due to its gene regulating effects. Vitamin C deficiency results in impaired immunity and higher susceptibility to infections. In turn, infections significantly impact on vitamin C levels due to enhanced inflammation and metabolic requirements. Furthermore, supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections. Prophylactic prevention of infection requires dietary vitamin C intakes that provide at least adequate, if not saturating plasma levels (i.e., 100–200 mg/day), which optimize cell and tissue levels. In contrast, treatment of established infections requires significantly higher (gram) doses of the vitamin to compensate for the increased inflammatory response and metabolic demand. View Full-Text
Keywords: ascorbate; ascorbic acid; immunity; immune system; neutrophil function; microbial killing; lymphocytes; infection; vitamin C ascorbate; ascorbic acid; immunity; immune system; neutrophil function; microbial killing; lymphocytes; infection; vitamin C
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Carr, A.C.; Maggini, S. Vitamin C and Immune Function. Nutrients 2017, 9, 1211.

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