Next Article in Journal
A Novel Combination of Wheat Peptides and Fucoidan Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage through Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Pro-Survival Mechanisms
Next Article in Special Issue
Iron Absorption from Three Commercially Available Supplements in Gastrointestinal Cell Lines
Previous Article in Journal
Bariatric Surgery and Precision Nutrition
Previous Article in Special Issue
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Summary of the 2016 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence Review
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 975; doi:10.3390/nu9090975

Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute, A4-194 950 West 28th Ave, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada
2
DSM Nutritional Products, Columbia, MD 21045, USA
Deceased.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 28 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Supplements)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [746 KB, uploaded 6 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers (n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and ARA (200 mg/day) supplement (supplement) or a corn oil supplement (control) until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and language composites and Beery–Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual–Motor Integration (Beery VMI) at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21–9.00), B (95% CI), p = 0.045) in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10–17.94), p < 0.001) and girls (11.19 (4.69–17.68), p = 0.001). These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months. View Full-Text
Keywords: toddlers; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; arachidonic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; neurodevelopment toddlers; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; arachidonic acid; docosahexaenoic acid; neurodevelopment
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Devlin, A.M.; Chau, C.M.Y.; Dyer, R.; Matheson, J.; McCarthy, D.; Yurko-Mauro, K.; Innis, S.M.; Grunau, R.E. Developmental Outcomes at 24 Months of Age in Toddlers Supplemented with Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid: Results of a Double Blind Randomized, Controlled Trial. Nutrients 2017, 9, 975.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top