Next Article in Journal
Impact of Age and Race on Outcomes of a Program to Prevent Excess Weight Gain and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls
Previous Article in Journal
Increases in Alcohol Intakes Are Concurrent with Higher Energy Intakes: Trends in Alcohol Consumption in Australian National Surveys from 1983, 1995 and 2012
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(9), 945; doi:10.3390/nu9090945

Vitamin D Sufficiency of Canadian Children Did Not Improve Following the 2010 Revision of the Dietary Guidelines That Recommend Higher Intake of Vitamin D: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey

1
School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Population Health Intervention Research Unit, 3-50 University Terrace, 8303 112 Street, Edmonton, AB T6G2T4, Canada
2
Agricultural, Food & Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G1C9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [245 KB, uploaded 28 August 2017]

Abstract

In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1–70 years were revised upward. It is unknown whether the vitamin D status of Canadian children improved after 2010. We compared the prevalence of vitamin D sufficiency (25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration of ≥50 nmol/L), 25(OH)D concentration and the frequency of consuming vitamin D-rich foods among children aged 6–18 years-old using data from the nationally representative 2007/2009 and 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Surveys. Associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, seasonal, and regional variables with achieving vitamin D sufficiency, 25(OH)D concentration, and consumption of vitamin D-rich foods were assessed using multiple logistic and linear regression models. 79% and 68% of children in 2007/2009 and 2012/2013 respectively, were vitamin D sufficient. The main dietary source of vitamin D was milk. Between 2007/2009 and 2012/2013, the frequency of milk and fish consumption declined, but egg and red meat consumption was unchanged. Age, income, weight status, season and ethnicity were associated with 25(OH)D concentration and vitamin D sufficiency. Vitamin D status declined after the upward revision of dietary guidelines for vitamin D, consequently, dietary intake was inadequate to meet sufficiency. Public health initiatives to promote vitamin D-rich foods and supplementation for Canadian children are needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; diet; supplementation; children; 25(OH)D; dietary reference intake; sufficiency; Canadian Health Measure Survey; determinants; Canada vitamin D; diet; supplementation; children; 25(OH)D; dietary reference intake; sufficiency; Canadian Health Measure Survey; determinants; Canada
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Munasinghe, L.L.; Willows, N.D.; Yuan, Y.; Ekwaru, J.P.; Veugelers, P.J. Vitamin D Sufficiency of Canadian Children Did Not Improve Following the 2010 Revision of the Dietary Guidelines That Recommend Higher Intake of Vitamin D: An Analysis of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Nutrients 2017, 9, 945.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top