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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 863; doi:10.3390/nu9080863

Iron Fortification of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to Address Iron Deficiency

1
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
2
Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada
3
College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5C9, Canada
4
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Marywood University, 2300, Adams Avenue, Scranton, PA 18509, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailbility and Absorption)
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Abstract

Iron (Fe) deficiency is a major human health concern in areas of the world in which diets are often Fe deficient. In the current study, we aimed to identify appropriate methods and optimal dosage for Fe fortification of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) dal with FeSO4·7H2O (ferrous sulphate hepta-hydrate), NaFeEDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron (III) sodium salt) and FeSO4·H2O (ferrous sulphate mono-hydrate). We used a colorimetric method to determine the appearance of the dal fortified with fortificants at different Fe concentrations and under different storage conditions. Relative Fe bioavailability was assessed using an in vitro cell culture bioassay. We found that NaFeEDTA was the most suitable fortificant for red lentil dal, and at 1600 ppm, NaFeEDTA provides 13–14 mg of additional Fe per 100 g of dal. Lentil dal sprayed with fortificant solutions, followed by shaking and drying at 75 °C, performed best with respect to drying time and color change. Total Fe and phytic acid concentrations differed significantly between cooked unfortified and fortified lentil, ranging from 68.7 to 238.5 ppm and 7.2 to 8.0 mg g−1, respectively. The relative Fe bioavailability of cooked fortified lentil was increased by 32.2–36.6% compared to unfortified cooked lentil. We conclude that fortification of lentil dal is effective and could provide significant health benefits to dal-consuming populations vulnerable to Fe deficiency. View Full-Text
Keywords: lentil; iron; fortification; NaFeEDTA; FeSO4·7H2O; FeSO4·H2O lentil; iron; fortification; NaFeEDTA; FeSO4·7H2O; FeSO4·H2O
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Podder, R.; Tar’an, B.; Tyler, R.T.; Henry, C.J.; DellaValle, D.M.; Vandenberg, A. Iron Fortification of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to Address Iron Deficiency. Nutrients 2017, 9, 863.

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