Next Article in Journal
Iron Fortification of Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) to Address Iron Deficiency
Previous Article in Journal
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease: Summary of the 2016 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality Evidence Review
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 860; doi:10.3390/nu9080860

Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements

1
Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Juliette Wytsmanstraat 14, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
2
Department of Food Safety and Food Quality, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Department for Statistics, Informatics and Modelling, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. BOX 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands
4
Department of Public Health, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 2 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [294 KB, uploaded 22 September 2017]

Abstract

A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3–6 (6–7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34–37%). Except for women aged 60–64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1–4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intake; micronutrient adequacy; fat-soluble vitamins; fortified foods; supplements; Belgian population dietary intake; micronutrient adequacy; fat-soluble vitamins; fortified foods; supplements; Belgian population
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Moyersoen, I.; Devleesschauwer, B.; Dekkers, A.; de Ridder, K.; Tafforeau, J.; van Camp, J.; van Oyen, H.; Lachat, C. Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements. Nutrients 2017, 9, 860.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top