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Nutrients 2017, 9(8), 831; doi:10.3390/nu9080831

Vitamin C Status Correlates with Markers of Metabolic and Cognitive Health in 50-Year-Olds: Findings of the CHALICE Cohort Study

1
Biostatistics and Computational Biology Unit, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
2
Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
3
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
4
Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
5
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
6
Lipid & Diabetes Research Group, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [441 KB, uploaded 3 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

A cohort of 50-year-olds from Canterbury, New Zealand (N = 404), representative of midlife adults, undertook comprehensive health and dietary assessments. Fasting plasma vitamin C concentrations (N = 369) and dietary vitamin C intake (N = 250) were determined. The mean plasma vitamin C concentration was 44.2 µmol/L (95% CI 42.4, 46.0); 62% of the cohort had inadequate plasma vitamin C concentrations (i.e., <50 µmol/L), 13% of the cohort had hypovitaminosis C (i.e., <23 µmol/L), and 2.4% had plasma vitamin C concentrations indicating deficiency (i.e., <11 µmol/L). Men had a lower mean plasma vitamin C concentration than women, and a higher percentage of vitamin C inadequacy and deficiency. A higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis C and deficiency was observed in those of lower socio-economic status and in current smokers. Adults with higher vitamin C levels exhibited lower weight, BMI and waist circumference, and better measures of metabolic health, including HbA1c, insulin and triglycerides, all risk factors for type 2 diabetes. Lower levels of mild cognitive impairment were observed in those with the highest plasma vitamin C concentrations. Plasma vitamin C showed a stronger correlation with markers of metabolic health and cognitive impairment than dietary vitamin C. View Full-Text
Keywords: ascorbate; cognition; HbA1c; insulin; glucose; hypovitaminosis C ascorbate; cognition; HbA1c; insulin; glucose; hypovitaminosis C
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pearson, J.F.; Pullar, J.M.; Wilson, R.; Spittlehouse, J.K.; Vissers, M.C.M.; Skidmore, P.M.L.; Willis, J.; Cameron, V.A.; Carr, A.C. Vitamin C Status Correlates with Markers of Metabolic and Cognitive Health in 50-Year-Olds: Findings of the CHALICE Cohort Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 831.

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