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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 718; doi:10.3390/nu9070718

Protective Role for Antioxidants in Acute Kidney Disease

Redox Biology Group, Discipline of Pathology, Charles Perkins Centre, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
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Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin C in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Acute kidney injury causes significant morbidity and mortality in the community and clinic. Various pathologies, including renal and cardiovascular disease, traumatic injury/rhabdomyolysis, sepsis, and nephrotoxicity, that cause acute kidney injury (AKI), induce general or regional decreases in renal blood flow. The ensuing renal hypoxia and ischemia promotes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radical anions, peroxides, and hydroxyl radicals, that can oxidatively damage biomolecules and membranes, and affect organelle function and induce renal tubule cell injury, inflammation, and vascular dysfunction. Acute kidney injury is associated with increased oxidative damage, and various endogenous and synthetic antioxidants that mitigate source and derived oxidants are beneficial in cell-based and animal studies. However, the benefit of synthetic antioxidant supplementation in human acute kidney injury and renal disease remains to be realized. The endogenous low-molecular weight, non-proteinaceous antioxidant, ascorbate (vitamin C), is a promising therapeutic in human renal injury in critical illness and nephrotoxicity. Ascorbate may exert significant protection by reducing reactive oxygen species and renal oxidative damage via its antioxidant activity, and/or by its non-antioxidant functions in maintaining hydroxylase and monooxygenase enzymes, and endothelium and vascular function. Ascorbate supplementation may be particularly important in renal injury patients with low vitamin C status. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidant; renal injury; oxidant; hypoxia; ischemia; vitamin C; endothelium antioxidant; renal injury; oxidant; hypoxia; ischemia; vitamin C; endothelium
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Dennis, J.M.; Witting, P.K. Protective Role for Antioxidants in Acute Kidney Disease. Nutrients 2017, 9, 718.

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