Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies
AbstractAlthough epidemiological studies have examined the role of chocolate in preventing cardiometabolic disease, the results remain inconsistent. Herein, we conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the association between chocolate intake and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes. A systematical search in PubMed and Embase through March 2017, together with reference scrutiny of relevant literatures, was performed to identify eligible studies. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled using random effect models. Fourteen prospective studies of primary prevention with 508,705 participants were finally included, with follow-up durations ranging from 5 to 16 years. The summary RRs for the highest versus lowest chocolate consumption were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82–0.97; n = 6) for CHD, 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78–0.90; n = 7) for stroke, and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.70–0.96; n = 5) for diabetes. Dose–response meta-analysis suggested a nonlinear association of chocolate consumption with all outcomes. For both CHD and stroke, there was little additional risk reduction when consuming chocolate ≥3 servings/week (one serving was defined as 30 g of chocolate). For diabetes, the peak protective effect of chocolate emerged at 2 servings/week (RR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.63–0.89), with no benefit observed when increasing consumption above 6 servings/week. In conclusion, chocolate intake is associated with decreased risks of CHD, stroke, and diabetes. Consuming chocolate in moderation (≤6 servings/week) may be optimal for preventing these disorders. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Yuan, S.; Li, X.; Jin, Y.; Lu, J. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients 2017, 9, 688.
Yuan S, Li X, Jin Y, Lu J. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients. 2017; 9(7):688.Chicago/Turabian Style
Yuan, Sheng; Li, Xia; Jin, Yalei; Lu, Jinping. 2017. "Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies." Nutrients 9, no. 7: 688.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.