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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 686; doi:10.3390/nu9070686

Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats

1
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
2
Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
3
Neuroscience Research and Development Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2017 / Revised: 12 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been linked to the degeneration of central cholinergic and glutamatergic transmission, which correlates with progressive memory loss and the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ). It has been claimed that aged garlic extract (AGE) has a beneficial effect in preventing neurodegeneration in AD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of AGE on Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction with a biochemical basis in the cholinergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic systems in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered three doses of AGE (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) daily for 65 days. At day 56, they were injected with 1 μL of aggregated Aβ (1–42) into each lateral ventricle, bilaterally. After six days of Aβ injection, the rats’ working and reference memory was tested using a radial arm maze. The rats were then euthanized to investigate any changes to the cholinergic neurons, vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and 2 proteins (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2), and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) in the hippocampus. The results showed that AGE significantly improved the working memory and tended to improve the reference memory in cognitively-impaired rats. In addition, AGE significantly ameliorated the loss of cholinergic neurons and increased the VGLUT1 and GAD levels in the hippocampus of rat brains with Aβ-induced toxicity. In contrast, the VGLUT2 protein levels did not change in any of the treated groups. We concluded that AGE was able to attenuate the impairment of working memory via the modification of cholinergic neurons, VGLUT1, and GAD in the hippocampus of Aβ-induced rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: aged garlic extract; Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β; cholinergic neurons; glutamate decarboxylase; radial arm maze; vesicular glutamate transporters aged garlic extract; Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid-β; cholinergic neurons; glutamate decarboxylase; radial arm maze; vesicular glutamate transporters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Thorajak, P.; Pannangrong, W.; Welbat, J.U.; Chaijaroonkhanarak, W.; Sripanidkulchai, K.; Sripanidkulchai, B. Effects of Aged Garlic Extract on Cholinergic, Glutamatergic and GABAergic Systems with Regard to Cognitive Impairment in Aβ-Induced Rats. Nutrients 2017, 9, 686.

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