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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 685; doi:10.3390/nu9070685

Brain Functional Connectivity Is Modified by a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity in Obese Women

1
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Málaga, Málaga 29010, Spain
2
Centro de Investigaciones Médico-Sanitarias (C.I.M.E.S), University of Málaga, Málaga 29010, Spain
3
Department of Internal Medicine, University Regional Hospital, Málaga; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Málaga 29010, Spain
4
Centro de Investigaciones Médico-Sanitarias (C.I.M.E.S), University of Málaga, Málaga 29010, Spain
5
Department of Public Health and Psychiatry, University of Málaga, Málaga 29010, Spain;
6
Department of Endocrinology, Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Málaga; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Málaga 29010, Spain
7
Department of Endocrinology, Regional University Hospital, Málaga 29010, Spain
8
Department of Psychiatry, Bellvitge University Hospital-IDIBELL, Hospitalet de Llobregat 08908, Spain
9
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Barcelona, l’Hospitalet de Llobregat 08907, Spain
10
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC 3801, Canada
11
Department of Internal Medicine, Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Málaga; Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Málaga (IBIMA), Málaga 29010, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this study was to examine the connectivity between brain structures before and six months after following a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical activity program in a group of sixteen obese women aged 46.31 ± 4.07 years. Before and after the intervention program, the body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2) was 38.15 ± 4.7 vs. 34.18 ± 4.5 (p < 0.02), and body weight (kg) was 98.5 ± 13.1 vs. 88.28 ± 12.2 (p < 0.03). All subjects underwent a pre- and post-intervention fMRI under fasting conditions. Functional connectivity was assessed using seed-based correlations. After the intervention, we found decreased connectivity between the left inferior parietal cortex and the right temporal cortex (p < 0.001), left posterior cingulate (p < 0.001), and right posterior cingulate (p < 0.03); decreased connectivity between the left superior frontal gyrus and the right temporal cortex (p < 0.01); decreased connectivity between the prefrontal cortex and the somatosensory cortex (p < 0.025); and decreased connectivity between the left and right posterior cingulate (p < 0.04). Results were considered significant at a voxel-wise threshold of p ≤ 0.05, and a cluster-level family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons of p ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, functional connectivity between brain structures involved in the pathophysiology of obesity (the inferior parietal lobe, posterior cingulate, temporo-insular cortex, prefrontal cortex) may be modified by a weight loss program including a Mediterranean diet and physical exercise. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; physical activity; connectivity; obesity; inferior parietal lobe; temporal lobe; insula; prefrontal cortex; posterior cingulate; somatosensory cortex; functional MRI; resting state Mediterranean diet; physical activity; connectivity; obesity; inferior parietal lobe; temporal lobe; insula; prefrontal cortex; posterior cingulate; somatosensory cortex; functional MRI; resting state
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García-Casares, N.; Bernal-López, M.R.; Roé-Vellvé, N.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Fernández-García, J.C.; García-Arnés, J.A.; Ramos-Rodriguez, J.R.; Alfaro, F.; Santamaria-Fernández, S.; Steward, T.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Garcia-Garcia, I.; Valdivielso, P.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Tinahones, F.J.; Gómez-Huelgas, R. Brain Functional Connectivity Is Modified by a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity in Obese Women. Nutrients 2017, 9, 685.

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