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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 682; doi:10.3390/nu9070682

A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children

1
Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics, Lund University, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden
2
Department of Clinical Sciences/Pediatrics, Umeå University, SE-90185 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 April 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract

Vitamin D and calcium are essential nutrients with a range of biological effects of public health relevance. This study aimed to validate a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) against a three-day food record (3D record), assessing the intake of vitamin D and calcium in Swedish children during wintertime. In a double-blinded, randomized food-based intervention study on the effect of feeding different daily doses of vitamin D supplement to 5–7-year-old children (n = 85), 79 (93%) participants completed SFFQ1 at baseline and SFFQ2 after the intervention, and 72 were informed to fill in a 3D record. The 28 (39%) children who completed the 3D record were included in this validation study. The baseline level of serum-25 hydroxy vitamin D [S-25(OH)D] was used as a biomarker. The correlation between all three instruments were moderate to strong. SFFQ2 and the 3D record correlated moderately to S-25(OH)D. Bland-Altman analysis showed that SFFQ2 overestimated vitamin D intake by on average 0.6 μg/day, (limits of agreement (LOA) 5.7 and −4.6 μg/day), whereas the intake of calcium was underestimated by on average 29 mg/day, (LOA 808 and −865 mg/day). Finally, the validity coefficient calculated for vitamin D using the method of triad was high (0.75). In conclusion, this SFFQ, assessed by a dietician, is a valid tool to assess dietary vitamin D and calcium intake in groups of young children. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary assessments; three-day food record; child; 25-hydroxy vitamin D dietary assessments; three-day food record; child; 25-hydroxy vitamin D
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Söderberg, L.; Lind, T.; Karlsland Åkeson, P.; Sandström, A.-K.; Hernell, O.; Öhlund, I. A Validation Study of an Interviewer-Administered Short Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing Dietary Vitamin D and Calcium Intake in Swedish Children. Nutrients 2017, 9, 682.

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