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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 681; doi:10.3390/nu9070681

Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice

1
Neurotec Pharma SL, Bioincubadora PCB-Santander, Parc Científic de Barcelona, Baldiri Reixac 15, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
2
Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Falcutat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Avinguda Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain
3
Unitat de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques I, Facultat de Medicina, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS) and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Casanova 143, E-08036 Barcelona, Spain
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 February 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract

Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated, at least in part, to an inflammatory process in which microglia plays a major role. The effect of the triglyceride form of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA) was assayed in vitro and in vivo to assess the protective and anti-inflammatory activity of this compound. In the in vitro study, BV-2 microglia cells were previously treated with TG-DHA and then activated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). TG-DHA treatment protected BV-2 microglia cells from oxidative stress toxicity attenuating NO production and suppressing the induction of inflammatory cytokines. When compared with DHA in the ethyl-ester form, a significant difference in the ability to inhibit NO production in favor of TG-DHA was observed. TG-DHA inhibited significantly splenocyte proliferation but isolated CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation was unaffected. In a mice model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), 250 mg/kg/day oral TG-DHA treatment was associated with a significant amelioration of the course and severity of the disease as compared to untreated animals. TG-DHA-treated EAE mice showed a better weight profile, which is a symptom related to a better course of encephalomyelitis. TG-DHA may be a promising therapeutic agent in neuroinflammatory processes and merit to be more extensively studied in human neurodegenerative disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; microglia; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory process; EAE model docosahexaenoic acid; microglia; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid; oxidative stress; anti-inflammatory process; EAE model
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mancera, P.; Wappenhans, B.; Cordobilla, B.; Virgili, N.; Pugliese, M.; Rueda, F.; Espinosa-Parrilla, J.F.; Domingo, J.C. Natural Docosahexaenoic Acid in the Triglyceride Form Attenuates In Vitro Microglial Activation and Ameliorates Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice. Nutrients 2017, 9, 681.

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