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Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 651; doi:10.3390/nu9070651

Vitamin D and Infectious Diseases: Simple Bystander or Contributing Factor?

1
Laboratory of Medical Research-LIM12, Nephrology Department, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo CEP 01246-903, Brazil
2
Nephrology Department, Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital, Herston QLD 4029, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 24 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1720 KB, uploaded 26 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Vitamin D (VD) is a fat-soluble steroid essential for life in higher animals. It is technically a pro-hormone present in few food types and produced endogenously in the skin by a photochemical reaction. In recent decades, several studies have suggested that VD contributes to diverse processes extending far beyond mineral homeostasis. The machinery for VD production and its receptor have been reported in multiple tissues, where they have a pivotal role in modulating the immune system. Similarly, vitamin D deficiency (VDD) has been in the spotlight as a major global public healthcare burden. VDD is highly prevalent throughout different regions of the world, including tropical and subtropical countries. Moreover, VDD may affect host immunity leading to an increased incidence and severity of several infectious diseases. In this review, we discuss new insights on VD physiology as well as the relationship between VD status and various infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, respiratory tract infections, human immunodeficiency virus, fungal infections and sepsis. Finally, we critically review the latest evidence on VD monitoring and supplementation in the setting of infectious diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; infectious diseases; HIV/AIDS; tuberculosis; sepsis; fungal infections; oxidative stress vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; infectious diseases; HIV/AIDS; tuberculosis; sepsis; fungal infections; oxidative stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gois, P.H.F.; Ferreira, D.; Olenski, S.; Seguro, A.C. Vitamin D and Infectious Diseases: Simple Bystander or Contributing Factor? Nutrients 2017, 9, 651.

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