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Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 591; doi:10.3390/nu9060591

Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood?

IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, DONALD Study, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn, Heinstueck 11, 44225 Dortmund, Germany
Institute for Clinical Diabetology, German Diabetes Center, Leibniz Center for Diabetes Research at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Auf'm Hennekamp 65, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, 85764 München-Neuherberg, Germany
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Moorenstraße 5, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology, Laboratory for Translational Hormone Analytics, Peptide Hormone Research Unit, Center of Child and Adolescent Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Feulgenstraße 10-12, 35392 Gießen, Germany
Institute of Nutrition, Consumption and Health, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University Paderborn, Warburger Straße 100, 33098 Paderborn, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 April 2017 / Revised: 2 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Background: This study investigated whether glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) of morning or evening intake and morning or evening carbohydrate intake from low- or higher-GI food sources (low-GI-CHO, higher-GI-CHO) during adolescence are relevant for risk markers of type 2 diabetes in young adulthood. Methods: Analyses included DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study participants who had provided at least two 3-day weighed dietary records (median: 7 records) during adolescence and one blood sample in young adulthood. Using multivariable linear regression analyses, estimated morning and evening GI, GL, low-GI-CHO (GI < 55) and higher-GI-CHO (GI ≥ 55) were related to insulin sensitivity (N = 252), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), fatty liver index (FLI) (both N = 253), and a pro-inflammatory-score (N = 249). Results: Morning intakes during adolescence were not associated with any of the adult risk markers. A higher evening GI during adolescence was related to an increased HSI in young adulthood (p = 0.003). A higher consumption of higher-GI-CHO in the evening was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (p = 0.046) and an increased HSI (p = 0.006), while a higher evening intake of low-GI-CHO was related to a lower HSI (p = 0.009). Evening intakes were not related to FLI or the pro-inflammatory-score (all p > 0.1). Conclusion: Avoidance of large amounts of carbohydrates from higher-GI sources in the evening should be considered in preventive strategies to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. View Full-Text
Keywords: glycaemic index; glycaemic load; daytime; adolescence; type 2 diabetes mellitus glycaemic index; glycaemic load; daytime; adolescence; type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Diederichs, T.; Herder, C.; Roßbach, S.; Roden, M.; Wudy, S.A.; Nöthlings, U.; Alexy, U.; Buyken, A.E. Carbohydrates from Sources with a Higher Glycemic Index during Adolescence: Is Evening Rather than Morning Intake Relevant for Risk Markers of Type 2 Diabetes in Young Adulthood? Nutrients 2017, 9, 591.

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