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Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 573; doi:10.3390/nu9060573

Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

1
Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Paseo Tollocan esq. Jesús Carranza, Col. Moderna de la Cruz, Toluca 50180, Mexico
2
Instlituto Materno-Infantil del Estado de México, Paseo Colón s/n, Col. Villa Hogar, Toluca 50170, Mexico
3
Faculty of Life Sciences and Computing, London Metropolitan University, 166-220 Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2017 / Revised: 28 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 3 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, with an imbalance in the secretion of adipokines and, worsening insulin resistance. Supplementation with n-3 PUFA in T2DM decreases inflammatory markers, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on adipokines, metabolic control, and lipid profile in T2DM Mexican adults. Methods: In a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, 54 patients with T2DM received 520 mg of DHA + EPA-enriched fish-oil (FOG) or a placebo (PG) daily. Baseline and 24-week anthropometric and biochemical measurements included glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb1Ac), leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and lipid profile; n-3 PUFA intake was calculated in g/day. Results: Waist circumference and blood glucose showed significant reductions in the FOG group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Hb1Ac (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004), leptin (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000), and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.000 and p < 0.000) decreased significantly in both groups after 24 weeks (FOG and PG respectively). Serum resistin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p = 0.001), insulin (FOG p < 0.000 and PG p < 0.000), and HOMA-IR (FOG p = 0.000 and PG p < 0.000) increased significantly in both groups. FOG had an overall improvement in the lipid profile with a significant decrease in triacylgycerols (p = 0.002) and atherogenic index (p = 0.031); in contrast, the PG group had increased total cholesterol (p < 0.000), non-HDL cholesterol (p < 0.000), and atherogenic index (p = 0.017). Conclusions: We found a beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation on waist circumference, glucose, Hb1Ac, leptin, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and lipid profile, without significant changes in adiponectin, and increases in resistin, insulin, and HOMA-IR in both groups. View Full-Text
Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus; adipokines; lipid profile; n-3 PUFAs type 2 diabetes mellitus; adipokines; lipid profile; n-3 PUFAs
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jacobo-Cejudo, M.G.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Guadarrama-López, A.L.; Pardo-Morales, R.-V.; Martínez-Carrillo, B.E.; Harbige, L.S. Effect of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation on Metabolic and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients. Nutrients 2017, 9, 573.

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