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Nutrients 2017, 9(6), 592; doi:10.3390/nu9060592

Influence of Hot and Cold Environments on the Regulation of Energy Balance Following a Single Exercise Session: A Mini-Review

1
Département Environnements Opérationnels, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, 1 place Général Valérie André, BP 73, 91223 Brétigny-sur-Orge, France
2
Laboratoire des Adaptations au Climat Tropical, Exercice et Santé, EA3596, Université des Antilles, Pointe-à-Pitre, BP 250, 97157 Pointe-à-Pitre CEDEX, Guadeloupe, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 31 May 2017 / Accepted: 1 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract

Understanding the regulation of human food intake in response to an acute exercise session is of importance for interventions with athletes and soldiers, as well as overweight individuals. However, the influence of hot and cold environments on this crucial function for the regulation of body mass and motor performance has not been summarized. The purpose of this review was to exhaustively search the literature on the effect of ambient temperature during an exercise session on the subsequent subjective feeling of appetite, energy intake (EI) and its regulation. In the absence of stress due to environmental temperature, exercise-induced energy expenditure is not compensated by EI during an ad libitum meal following the session, probably due to decreased acylated ghrelin and increased peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels. No systematic analysis has been yet made for major alterations of relative EI in cold and hot environments. However, observed eating behaviors are altered (proportion of solid/liquid food, carbohydrate/fat) and physiological regulation appears also to be altered. Anorexigenic signals, particularly PYY, appear to further increase in hot environments than in those that are thermoneutral. Ghrelin and leptin may be involved in the observed increase in EI after exercise in the cold, in parallel with increased energy expenditure. The potential influence of ambient thermal environment on eating behaviors after an exercise session should not be neglected. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical exercise; appetite; energy intake; eating behavior; extreme environment; gut hormones physical exercise; appetite; energy intake; eating behavior; extreme environment; gut hormones
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Charlot, K.; Faure, C.; Antoine-Jonville, S. Influence of Hot and Cold Environments on the Regulation of Energy Balance Following a Single Exercise Session: A Mini-Review. Nutrients 2017, 9, 592.

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