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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 378; doi:10.3390/nu9040378

Interactions of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer Risk in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

1
Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
2
Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA
3
Department of Pathology, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
4
Departments of Medicine and Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0G4, Canada
5
Cancer Therapy and Research Center, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 30 March 2017 / Accepted: 7 April 2017 / Published: 12 April 2017
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Abstract

Some, but not all, epidemiologic studies report an association between vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. The inconsistent findings might be explained in the context of modification by members of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis. Data and specimens for this nested case-control study (n = 1695 cases and n = 1682 controls) are from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Baseline serum samples were assayed for 25(OH)D, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, and the ratio of IGF1:BP3, along with insulin-related markers c-peptide and leptin. The presence of prostate cancer was assessed by prostate biopsy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prostate cancer risk. There were no interactions between serum 25(OH)D and IGF analytes in relation to prostate cancer risk when PCPT treatment arms were combined. In the placebo arm, above median serum 25(OH)D levels were associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among men with higher IGF-2 (OR:1.33, 95% CI: 1.00–1.65), with a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and treatment arm (Pinteraction = 0.04). Additionally, there was an interaction between treatment arm and serum IGFBP-3 (Pinteraction = 0.03). Higher serum 25(OH)D may increase risk of prostate cancer in the presence of higher circulating IGF-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: insulin-like growth factor; vitamin D; prostate cancer; odds ratio; nested case-control; logistic regression insulin-like growth factor; vitamin D; prostate cancer; odds ratio; nested case-control; logistic regression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Miles, F.L.; Goodman, P.J.; Tangen, C.; Torkko, K.C.; Schenk, J.M.; Song, X.; Pollak, M.; Thompson, I.M.; Neuhouser, M.L. Interactions of the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Axis and Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer Risk in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Nutrients 2017, 9, 378.

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