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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 343; doi:10.3390/nu9040343

Copper to Zinc Ratio as Disease Biomarker in Neonates with Early-Onset Congenital Infections

1
Institute for Experimental Endocrinology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, CVK, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Neonatology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, CVK, D-13353 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 28 March 2017 / Published: 30 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients, Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases)
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Abstract

Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are essential trace elements for regular development. Acute infections alter their metabolism, while deficiencies increase infection risks. A prospective observational case-control study was conducted with infected (n = 21) and control (n = 23) term and preterm newborns. We analyzed trace element concentrations by X-ray fluorescence, and ceruloplasmin (CP) by Western blot. Median concentration of Cu at birth (day 1) was 522.8 [387.1–679.7] μg/L, and Zn was 1642.4 ± 438.1 μg/L. Cu and Zn correlated positively with gestational age in control newborns. Cu increased in infected newborns from day 1 to day 3. CP correlated positively to Cu levels at birth in both groups and on day 3 in the group of infected neonates. The Cu/Zn ratio was relatively high in infected newborns. Interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations on day 1 were unrelated to Cu, Zn, or the Cu/Zn ratio, whereas C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on day 3 correlated positively to the Cu/Zn -ratio at both day 1 and day 3. We conclude that infections affect the trace element homeostasis in newborns: serum Zn is reduced, while Cu and CP are increased. The Cu/Zn ratio combines both alterations, independent of gestational age. It may, thus, constitute a meaningful diagnostic biomarker for early-onset infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: ceruloplasmin; preterm; C reactive protein; interleukin-6; micronutrient. ceruloplasmin; preterm; C reactive protein; interleukin-6; micronutrient.
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Wisniewska, M.; Cremer, M.; Wiehe, L.; Becker, N.-P.; Rijntjes, E.; Martitz, J.; Renko, K.; Bührer, C.; Schomburg, L. Copper to Zinc Ratio as Disease Biomarker in Neonates with Early-Onset Congenital Infections. Nutrients 2017, 9, 343.

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