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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 326; doi:10.3390/nu9040326

Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study

1
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, University Alfonso X El Sabio, Madrid 28691, Spain
2
VALORNUT Research Group, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain
3
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Navarra 31008, Spain
4
Biomedical Research Networking Center for Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition (CIBEROBN), Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid 28029, Spain
5
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II and Institute of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Granada, Granada 18100, Spain
6
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain
7
Research Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Faculty of Health Sciences, c/Doctor Pasteur s/n Trasera del Hospital, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35016 Las Palmas, Spain
8
Department of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, CEU San Pablo University, Madrid 28668, Spain
9
Spanish Nutrition Foundation (FEN), Madrid 28010, Spain
10
Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Madrid Complutense University, Madrid 28040, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2016 / Revised: 15 March 2017 / Accepted: 21 March 2017 / Published: 25 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Abstract

The aim was to study the intake and food sources of fibre in a representative sample of Spanish adults and to analyse its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity. A sample of 1655 adults (18–64 years) from the ANIBES (“Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles”) cross-sectional study was analysed. Fibre intake and dietary food sources were determined by using a three-day dietary record. Misreporters were identified using the protocol of the European Food Safety Authority. Mean (standard deviation) fibre intake was 12.59 (5.66) g/day in the whole sample and 15.88 (6.29) g/day in the plausible reporters. Mean fibre intake, both in the whole sample and the plausible reporters, was below the adequate intake established by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the Institute of Medicine of the United States (IOM). Main fibre dietary food sources were grains, followed by vegetables, fruits, and pulses. In the whole sample, considering sex, and after adjusting for age and physical activity, mean (standard error) fibre intake (adjusted by energy intake) was higher in subjects who had normal weight (NW) 13.40 (0.184) g/day, without abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.192) g/day or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 13.56 (0.207) g/day compared to those who were overweight (OW) 12.31 (0.195) g/day, p < 0.001 or obese (OB) 11.83 (0.266) g/day, p < 0.001, with abdominal obesity 12.09 (0.157) g/day, p < 0.001 or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity 12.22 (0.148) g/day, p < 0.001. There were no significant differences in relation with the fibre intake according to the body mass index (BMI), presence or absence of abdominal obesity or excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity in the plausible reporters. Fibre from afternoon snacks was higher in subjects with NW (6.92%) and without abdominal obesity (6.97%) or without excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (7.20%), than those with OW (5.30%), p < 0.05 or OB (4.79%), p < 0.05, with abdominal obesity (5.18%), p < 0.01, or with excess body weight and/or abdominal obesity (5.21%), p < 0.01, in the whole sample. Conversely, these differences were not observed in the plausible reporters. The present study demonstrates an insufficient fibre intake both in the whole sample and in the plausible reporters and confirms its association with excess body weight and abdominal obesity only when the whole sample was considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: fibre; food sources; obesity; abdominal obesity; misreporting; adults; Spain; ANIBES fibre; food sources; obesity; abdominal obesity; misreporting; adults; Spain; ANIBES
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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González-Rodríguez, L.G.; Perea Sánchez, J.M.; Aranceta-Bartrina, J.; Gil, Á.; González-Gross, M.; Serra-Majem, L.; Varela-Moreiras, G.; Ortega, R.M. Intake and Dietary Food Sources of Fibre in Spain: Differences with Regard to the Prevalence of Excess Body Weight and Abdominal Obesity in Adults of the ANIBES Study. Nutrients 2017, 9, 326.

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