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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 329; doi:10.3390/nu9040329

Nutrition Assessment of B-Vitamins in Highly Active and Sedentary Women

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development, New York University, 411 Lafayette, 5th Floor, New York, NY 10003, USA
2
Department of Culinary and Nutrition Services, Banner Boswell Medical Center, 10401 W. Thunderbird Boulevard, Sun City, AZ 85351, USA
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Services, VA Salt Lake City Health Care System, 500 Foothill Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84148, USA
4
Department of Performance Innovation, Exos, 2629 E. Rose Garden Lane, Phoenix, AZ 85050, USA
5
Nutrition Consultant, PO Box 184, Veneta, OR 97487, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 March 2017 / Published: 26 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition, Health and Athletic Performance)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [250 KB, uploaded 10 April 2017]

Abstract

Background: Female athletes and active women require adequate nutrition for optimal health and performance. Nutrition assessments are needed to identify potential nutrients of concern. Folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 function in important pathways used during physical activity and female athletes may be at risk for poor status of these micronutrients. This cross-sectional study described a comprehensive nutrition assessment of the B-vitamins (folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) using both dietary (food and dietary supplements) and biochemical assessments among highly active and sedentary women. Methods: Highly active (n = 29; age 20 ± 2 years; body mass index (BMI) 23.8 ± 3.5 kg/m2) and sedentary (n = 29; age 24 ± 3 years; BMI 22.6 ± 3.0 kg/m2) women were recruited for this study. Participants completed 7-day weighed food records and a fasting blood draw. Results: Although the highly active women reported higher intakes of energy (p < 0.01), folate (p < 0.01), vitamin B6 (p < 0.01), and vitamin B12 (p < 0.01), no significant differences were found between the groups for biomarkers of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. All of the highly active women had biomarkers within the desired reference ranges, suggesting good status. In general, most participants were able to meet the 1998 Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) from food alone. For the women that reported using dietary supplements, micronutrient intakes met the 1998 RDA and in some cases, exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level. Conclusion: This nutrition assessment documented good status for folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in the highly active women. Similar assessment approaches (food, dietary supplements, and biomarkers) should to completed with other nutrients of concern for the female athlete. View Full-Text
Keywords: B-vitamins; folate; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; female athlete B-vitamins; folate; vitamin B6; vitamin B12; female athlete
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Woolf, K.; Hahn, N.L.; Christensen, M.M.; Carlson-Phillips, A.; Hansen, C.M. Nutrition Assessment of B-Vitamins in Highly Active and Sedentary Women. Nutrients 2017, 9, 329.

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