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Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 352; doi:10.3390/nu9040352

Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults

1
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health Science, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA 92504, USA
3
Anschutz Health and Wellness Center, University of Colorado—Denver | Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
4
Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
5
Department of Health Sciences, College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 February 2017 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fibers and Human Health)
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Abstract

Dietary protein and fiber independently influence insulin-mediated glucose control. However, potential additive effects are not well-known. Men and women (n = 20; age: 26 ± 5 years; body mass index: 26.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; mean ± standard deviation) consumed normal protein and fiber (NPNF; NP = 12.5 g, NF = 2 g), normal protein and high fiber (NPHF; NP = 12.5 g, HF = 8 g), high protein and normal fiber (HPNF; HP = 25 g, NF = 2 g), or high protein and fiber (HPHF; HP = 25 g, HF = 8 g) breakfast treatments during four 2-week interventions in a randomized crossover fashion. On the last day of each intervention, meal tolerance tests were completed to assess postprandial (every 60 min for 240 min) serum glucose and insulin concentrations. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to measure 24-h interstitial glucose during five days of the second week of each intervention. Repeated-measures ANOVA was applied for data analyses. The HPHF treatment did not affect postprandial glucose and insulin responses or 24-h glucose total area under the curve (AUC). Higher fiber intake reduced 240-min insulin AUC. Doubling the amount of protein from 12.5 g to 25 g/meal and quadrupling fiber from 2 to 8 g/meal at breakfast was not an effective strategy for modulating insulin-mediated glucose responses in these young, overweight adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary protein; dietary fiber; breakfast; overweight; continuous glucose monitoring; meal tolerance test dietary protein; dietary fiber; breakfast; overweight; continuous glucose monitoring; meal tolerance test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amankwaah, A.F.; Sayer, R.D.; Wright, A.J.; Chen, N.; McCrory, M.A.; Campbell, W.W. Effects of Higher Dietary Protein and Fiber Intakes at Breakfast on Postprandial Glucose, Insulin, and 24-h Interstitial Glucose in Overweight Adults. Nutrients 2017, 9, 352.

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