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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 256; doi:10.3390/nu8050256

Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways

1
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China
2
Hangzhou Napochi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Hangzhou 310018, China
3
Gifu Shellac Mfg. Co., Ltd., 1-27, Kanonishimaru-cho, Gifu 500, Japan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Health)
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Abstract

Long-term use of fish oil (FO) is known to induce oxidative stress and increase the risk of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. In the present study, peanut skin extract (PSE), which has strong antioxidant capacity, was mixed with FO to reduce its side effects while maintaining its beneficial properties. Twelve-week Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were used to conduct animal behavior tests in order to evaluate the memory-enhancing ability of the mixture of peanut skin extract and fish oil (MPF). MPF significantly increased alternations in the Y-maze and cognitive index in the novel object recognition test. MPF also improved performance in the water maze test. We further sought to understand the mechanisms underlying these effects. A significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and an increase in malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in plasma were observed in the FO group. The MPF group showed reduced MDA level and increased SOD activity in the plasma, cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, the gene expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in the hippocampus were increased in the MPF group, while phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and CREB in the hippocampus were enhanced. MPF improves memory in mice via modulation of anti-oxidative stress and activation of BDNF/ERK/CREB signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; fish oil; ERK; oxidative stress; peanut skin extract brain-derived neurotrophic factor; fish oil; ERK; oxidative stress; peanut skin extract
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Xiang, L.; Cao, X.-L.; Xing, T.-Y.; Mori, D.; Tang, R.-Q.; Li, J.; Gao, L.-J.; Qi, J.-H. Mixture of Peanut Skin Extract and Fish Oil Improves Memory in Mice via Modulation of Anti-Oxidative Stress and Regulation of BDNF/ERK/CREB Signaling Pathways. Nutrients 2016, 8, 256.

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