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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 248; doi:10.3390/nu8050248

Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System

1
Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-5487, Tehran 19395-5487, Iran
2
Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories, Medway School of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
3
Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, Pavia University, Viale Taramelli 12, Pavia 27100, Italy
4
Grup de Nutrició Comunitària i Estrès Oxidatiu (IUNICS) and CIBEROBN (Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition), Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca E-07122, Spain
5
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Shahid Behshti University, P.O. Box 19615-1178, Tehran 19615-1178, Iran
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 13 April 2016 / Accepted: 22 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1764 KB, uploaded 28 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg) in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; gallic acid; ischemia; stroke depression; gallic acid; ischemia; stroke
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Nabavi, S.F.; Habtemariam, S.; Di Lorenzo, A.; Sureda, A.; Khanjani, S.; Nabavi, S.M.; Daglia, M. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System. Nutrients 2016, 8, 248.

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