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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 287; doi:10.3390/nu8050287

Walnut Polyphenol Extract Attenuates Immunotoxicity Induced by 4-Pentylphenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Murine Splenic Lymphocyte

1,2
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1,2
,
1,2
,
1
,
3
,
1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Collage of Biological Science and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Forest Food Processing and Safety, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
3
College of Basic Medicine, Changchun University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 February 2016 / Revised: 15 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 12 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Promoting Components of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4399 KB, uploaded 12 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

4-pentylphenol (PP) and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol (PNMC), two important components of vehicle emissions, have been shown to confer toxicity in splenocytes. Certain natural products, such as those derived from walnuts, exhibit a range of antioxidative, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we investigated the effects of walnut polyphenol extract (WPE) on immunotoxicity induced by PP and PNMC in murine splenic lymphocytes. Treatment with WPE was shown to significantly enhance proliferation of splenocytes exposed to PP or PNMC, characterized by increases in the percentages of splenic T lymphocytes (CD3+ T cells) and T cell subsets (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells), as well as the production of T cell-related cytokines and granzymes (interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and granzyme-B) in cells exposed to PP or PNMC. These effects were associated with a decrease in oxidative stress, as evidenced by changes in OH, SOD, GSH-Px, and MDA levels. The total phenolic content of WPE was 34,800 ± 200 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g, consisting of at least 16 unique phenols, including ellagitannins, quercetin, valoneic acid dilactone, and gallic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that walnut polyphenols significantly attenuated PP and PNMC-mediated immunotoxicity and improved immune function by inhibiting oxidative stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol; 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol; walnut polyphenol extract; attenuates; immunotoxicity; splenic lymphocyte 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol; 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol; walnut polyphenol extract; attenuates; immunotoxicity; splenic lymphocyte
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, L.; Ma, S.; Han, Y.; Wang, Y.; Guo, Y.; Weng, Q.; Xu, M. Walnut Polyphenol Extract Attenuates Immunotoxicity Induced by 4-Pentylphenol and 3-methyl-4-nitrophenol in Murine Splenic Lymphocyte. Nutrients 2016, 8, 287.

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