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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 715; doi:10.3390/nu8110715

Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers

1
Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Vers-chez-les-Blanc, P.O. Box 44, 1000 Lausanne 26, Switzerland
2
Nestlé Research Center Beijing, Building E-F, No. 5 Dijin Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100091, China
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
4
Department of Social Medicine and Health Education, School of Public Health, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 10 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
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Abstract

Fatty acids (FA), phospholipids (PL), and gangliosides (GD) play a central role in infant growth, immune and inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to determine FA, PL, and GD compositional changes in human milk (HM) during lactation in a large group of Chinese lactating mothers (540 volunteers) residing in Beijing, Guangzhou, and Suzhou. HM samples were collected after full expression from one breast and while the baby was fed on the other breast. FA were assessed by direct methylation followed by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. PL and GD were extracted using chloroform and methanol. A methodology employing liquid chromatography coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) and with time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry was used to quantify PL and GD classes in HM, respectively. Saturated FA (SFA), mono-unsaturated FA (MUFA), and PL content decreased during lactation, while polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) and GD content increased. Among different cities, over the lactation time, HM from Beijing showed the highest SFA content, HM from Guangzhou the highest MUFA content and HM from Suzhou the highest n-3PUFA content. The highest total PL and GD contents were observed in HM from Suzhou. In order to investigate the influence of the diet on maternal milk composition, a careful analyses of dietary habits of these population needs to be performed in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: FA; phospholipids; gangliosides; breast milk; chromatography FA; phospholipids; gangliosides; breast milk; chromatography
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Giuffrida, F.; Cruz-Hernandez, C.; Bertschy, E.; Fontannaz, P.; Masserey Elmelegy, I.; Tavazzi, I.; Marmet, C.; Sanchez-Bridge, B.; Thakkar, S.K.; De Castro, C.A.; Vinyes-Pares, G.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, P. Temporal Changes of Human Breast Milk Lipids of Chinese Mothers. Nutrients 2016, 8, 715.

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