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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 714; doi:10.3390/nu8110714

Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

1
Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Abstract

Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS). Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2%) reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%), abdominal discomfort (49%) and flatulence (47%). A total of 23 (47%) srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP)-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; non-celiac wheat sensitivity; celiac disease; irritable bowel syndrome; FODMAPs gluten; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; non-celiac wheat sensitivity; celiac disease; irritable bowel syndrome; FODMAPs
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van Gils, T.; Nijeboer, P.; IJssennagger, C.E.; Sanders, D.S.; Mulder, C.J.J.; Bouma, G. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands. Nutrients 2016, 8, 714.

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