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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 714; doi:10.3390/nu8110714

Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands

Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 28 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
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Background: A growing number of individuals reports symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in the absence of celiac disease. Yet the actual prevalence is not well established. Methods: Between April 2015 and March 2016, unselected adults visiting marketplaces, dental practices and a university in The Netherlands were asked to complete a modified validated questionnaire for self-reported gluten sensitivity (srGS). Results: Among the 785 adults enquired, two had celiac disease. Forty-nine (6.2%) reported symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food. These individuals were younger, predominantly female and lived more frequently in urban regions compared with the other respondents. Symptoms reported included bloating (74%), abdominal discomfort (49%) and flatulence (47%). A total of 23 (47%) srGS individuals reported having had tried a gluten-free or gluten-restricted diet. Abdominal discomfort related to fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP)-containing food was more often reported in srGS individuals compared with the other respondents (73.5% vs. 21.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Self-reported GS is common in The Netherlands, especially in younger individuals, females and urban regions, although the prevalence was lower than in a comparable recent UK study. It cannot be excluded that FODMAPs are in part responsible for these symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; non-celiac wheat sensitivity; celiac disease; irritable bowel syndrome; FODMAPs gluten; non-celiac gluten sensitivity; non-celiac wheat sensitivity; celiac disease; irritable bowel syndrome; FODMAPs

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van Gils, T.; Nijeboer, P.; IJssennagger, C.E.; Sanders, D.S.; Mulder, C.J.J.; Bouma, G. Prevalence and Characterization of Self-Reported Gluten Sensitivity in The Netherlands. Nutrients 2016, 8, 714.

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