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Nutrients 2017, 9(1), 21; doi:10.3390/nu9010021

Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016

Gluten Analysis Laboratory of the University of the Basque Country, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Vitoria 01006, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 December 2016 / Published: 3 January 2017
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The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC). Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free; cereal based foodstuff; gluten content evolution; ELISA; European regulation gluten-free; cereal based foodstuff; gluten content evolution; ELISA; European regulation

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bustamante, M.Á.; Fernández-Gil, M.P.; Churruca, I.; Miranda, J.; Lasa, A.; Navarro, V.; Simón, E. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016. Nutrients 2017, 9, 21.

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