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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5143-5155; doi:10.3390/nu7075143

Effect of Stay-Green Wheat, a Novel Variety of Wheat in China, on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

1
Nutrition and Food Safety Engineering Research Center of Shaanxi Province, Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China
2
Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China
3
Medical College, Yan'an University, Yan'an 716000, China
4
Shaanxi Key laboratory of Degradable Biomedical Materials, Department of Food Science and Engineering, College of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2015 / Revised: 3 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
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Abstract

The use of natural hypoglycemic compounds is important in preventing and managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g were divided into four groups to investigate the effects of the compounds in stay-green wheat (SGW), a novel variety of wheat in China, on T2DM rats. The control group (NDC) was fed with a standard diet, while T2DM was induced in the rats belonging to the other three groups by a high-fat diet followed by a streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The T2DM rats were further divided into a T2DM control group (DC), which was fed with the normal diet containing 50% common wheat flour, a high dose SGW group (HGW) fed with a diet containing 50% SGW flour, and a low dose SGW group (LGW) fed with a diet containing 25% SGW flour and 25% common wheat flour. Our results showed that SGW contained cereal antioxidants, particularly high in flavonoids and anthocyanins (46.14 ± 1.80 mg GAE/100 g DW and 1.73 ± 0.14 mg CGE/100 g DW, respectively). Furthermore, SGW exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro (30.33 ± 2.66 μg TE/g DW, p < 0.01). Administration of the SGW at a high and low dose showed significant down-regulatory effects on fasting blood glucose (decreasing by 11.3% and 7.0%, respectively), insulin levels (decreasing by 12.3% and 9.7%, respectively), and lipid status (decreasing by 9.1% and 7.5%, respectively) in T2DM rats (p < 0.01). In addition, the T2DM groups treated with SGW at a high and low dose showed a significant increase in the blood superoxide dismutase (1.17 fold and 1.15 fold, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activities (1.37 fold and 1.30 fold, respectively) compared with the DC group (p < 0.01). The normalized impaired antioxidant status of the pancreatic islet and of the liver compared with the DC group was also significantly increased. Our results indicated that SGW components exerting a glycemic control and a serum lipid regulation effect may be due to their free radical scavenging capacities to reduce the risk of T2DM in experimental diabetic rats. View Full-Text
Keywords: stay-green wheat; type 2 diabetic mellitus; high-fat diet; antioxidant activities stay-green wheat; type 2 diabetic mellitus; high-fat diet; antioxidant activities
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ji, J.; Zhang, C.; Luo, X.; Wang, L.; Zhang, R.; Wang, Z.; Fan, D.; Yang, H.; Deng, J. Effect of Stay-Green Wheat, a Novel Variety of Wheat in China, on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats. Nutrients 2015, 7, 5143-5155.

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