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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5111-5142; doi:10.3390/nu7075111

Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation

Institute of Food Science and Technology–School of Food and Nutrition, Massey University, Auckland 0632, New Zealand
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Received: 13 March 2015 / Revised: 5 June 2015 / Accepted: 12 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
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Abstract

Sun exposure is the main source of vitamin D. Due to many lifestyle risk factors vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is becoming a worldwide health problem. Low 25(OH)D concentration is associated with adverse musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal health outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation is currently the best approach to treat deficiency and to maintain adequacy. In response to a given dose of vitamin D, the effect on 25(OH)D concentration differs between individuals, and it is imperative that factors affecting this response be identified. For this review, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify those factors and to explore their significance in relation to circulating 25(OH)D response to vitamin D supplementation. The effect of several demographic/biological factors such as baseline 25(OH)D, aging, body mass index(BMI)/body fat percentage, ethnicity, calcium intake, genetics, oestrogen use, dietary fat content and composition, and some diseases and medications has been addressed. Furthermore, strategies employed by researchers or health care providers (type, dose and duration of vitamin D supplementation) and environment (season) are other contributing factors. With the exception of baseline 25(OH)D, BMI/body fat percentage, dose and type of vitamin D, the relative importance of other factors and the mechanisms by which these factors may affect the response remains to be determined. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25(OH)D; supplementation; response; review vitamin D; 25(OH)D; supplementation; response; review
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazahery, H.; von Hurst, P.R. Factors Affecting 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration in Response to Vitamin D Supplementation. Nutrients 2015, 7, 5111-5142.

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