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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2485-2498; doi:10.3390/nu7042485

Meta-Analysis of the Association between Vitamin D and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Luzhou Medical College, Luzhou 646000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 January 2015 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 16 March 2015 / Published: 3 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Regulation by Vitamin D)
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Although emerging evidence suggests that low levels of vitamin D may contribute to the development of autoimmune disease, the relationship between vitamin D reduction and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), which includes Graves’ disease (GD) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), is still controversial. The aim was to evaluate the association between vitamin D levels and AITD through systematic literature review. We identified all studies that assessed the association between vitamin D and AITD from PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases. We included studies that compared vitamin D levels between AITD cases and controls as well as those that measured the odds of vitamin D deficiency by AITD status. We combined the standardized mean differences (SMD) or the odds ratios (OR) in a random effects model. Twenty case-control studies provided data for a quantitative meta-analysis. Compared to controls, AITD patients had lower levels of 25(OH)D (SMD: −0.99, 95% CI: −1.31, −0.66) and were more likely to be deficient in 25(OH)D (OR 2.99, 95% CI: 1.88, 4.74). Furthermore, subgroup analyses result showed that GD and HT patients also had lower 25(OH)D levels and were more likely to have a 25(OH)D deficiency, suggesting that low levels of serum 25(OH)D was related to AITD. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; Graves’ disease; Hashimoto thyroiditis; meta-analysis vitamin D; autoimmune thyroid disease; Graves’ disease; Hashimoto thyroiditis; meta-analysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, J.; Lv, S.; Chen, G.; Gao, C.; He, J.; Zhong, H.; Xu, Y. Meta-Analysis of the Association between Vitamin D and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2485-2498.

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