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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2015)

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Open AccessArticle Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10525-10537; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125552
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed
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Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Area Measured by Computed Tomography with That Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method in Korean Subjects
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10513-10524; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125548
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1728 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We evaluated the concordance between visceral fat area (VFA) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) or computed tomography (CT) in Korean subjects with a wide range in age and body mass index (BMI). In 1006 individuals (mean age 55.2 ± 11.8 (19–87) years,
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We evaluated the concordance between visceral fat area (VFA) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) or computed tomography (CT) in Korean subjects with a wide range in age and body mass index (BMI). In 1006 individuals (mean age 55.2 ± 11.8 (19–87) years, mean BMI 26.0 ± 3.5 (17–46) kg/m2, 48.9% men), VFA quantified by CT was compared with VFA using multifrequency BIA machines within 15 days. Concordance rates were compared by age or BMI using correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Using BIA data, we established a regression formula to reflect CT-VFA. The mean VFAs by CT and BIA were 131.9 ± 57.3 cm2 and 110.5 ± 33.9 cm2, respectively (r = 0.605, p < 0.001). The mean difference was 21.4 ± 45.6 cm2, tending to increase with BMI. In women with BMI <25 kg/m2 or age <50 years, the VFAs by BIA were similar to those by CT (ICC = 0.496 in BMI <25 kg/m2 and ICC = 0.638 in age <50 years). However, the difference was greater in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or age ≥50 years. Applying our formula, the difference between estimations decreased to 0.2 ± 38.2cm2. VFA estimated by BIA correlated well with that by CT, but a more accurate formula is needed to match CT data, particularly in older men or subjects with a high BMI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10501-10512; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125545
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011
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The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. Full article
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Open AccessConference Report Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10491-10500; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125547
Received: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (807 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has
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A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Obesity Effect of 6,8-Diprenylgenistein, an Isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata Fruits in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10480-10490; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125544
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 5 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG), a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice at the
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Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG), a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg for six week. The body weight of the DPG-treated groups was significantly lower compared to the HFD-treated group. In addition, fat accumulation in epididymal adipose tissue and liver was dramatically decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. The food efficiency ratios of the HFD + DPG groups were also lower compared to the HFD group with the same food intake. Metabolic parameters that had increased in the HFD group were decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. Further studies demonstrate that DPG efficiently reduces lipogenic genes by regulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and hormones, such as leptin and adiponection. DPG also regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Taken together, DPG is beneficial for the regulation of obesity, especially resulting from high fat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition Interventions for Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity: What Do Parents Want from an eHealth Program?
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10469-10479; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125546
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (198 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents;
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With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents; and (ii) preferences and/or expectations for program components and features. Parents of children aged four to18 years were recruited through social media and completed an online survey (54 items) including closed and open-ended questions. Responses were collated using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Seventy-five participants were included (92% mothers, mean age 39.1 ± 8.6 years, mean BMI 27.6 ± 6.3 kg/m2). The index child had a mean age of 11 ± 6.2 years with 24% overweight/obese. The majority of parents (90.3%) reported interest in an online program, with preference expressed for a non-structured program to allow flexibility users to log-on and off as desired. Parents wanted a program that was easy to use, practical, engaging, endorsed by a reputable source, and able to provide individual tailoring and for their children to be directly involved. The current study supports the need for online delivery of a healthy lifestyle program that targets greater parental concerns of diet rather than child weight. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10447-10468; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125543
Received: 8 November 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 12 December 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the
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The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences. Full article
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Open AccessReview Zinc in Early Life: A Key Element in the Fetus and Preterm Neonate
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10427-10446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125542
Received: 8 August 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (1111 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc.
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Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc. We performed a systematic search of articles on the role of zinc in early life. We selected and analyzed 81 studies. Results of this analysis showed that preservation of zinc balance is of critical importance for the avoidance of possible consequences of low zinc levels on pre- and post-natal life. Insufficient quantities of zinc during embryogenesis may influence the final phenotype of all organs. Maternal zinc restriction during pregnancy influences fetal growth, while adequate zinc supplementation during pregnancy may result in a reduction of the risk of preterm birth. Preterm neonates are at particular risk to develop zinc deficiency due to a combination of different factors: (i) low body stores due to reduced time for placental transfer of zinc; (ii) increased endogenous losses; and (iii) marginal intake. Early diagnosis of zinc deficiency, through the measurement of serum zinc concentrations, may be essential to avoid severe prenatal and postnatal consequences in these patients. Typical clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are growth impairment and dermatitis. Increasing data suggest that moderate zinc deficiency may have significant subclinical effects, increasing the risk of several complications typical of preterm neonates (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy), and that current recommended intakes should be revised to meet zinc requirements of extremely preterm neonates. Future studies evaluating the adequacy of current recommendations are advocated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zinc and Human Health)
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Open AccessReview The Overlap between Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: A Clinical Dilemma
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10417-10426; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125541
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders has widened in recent times and includes celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. The complex of symptoms associated with these diseases, such as diarrhea, constipation or abdominal pain may overlap for the gluten related diseases, and
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The spectrum of gluten-related disorders has widened in recent times and includes celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. The complex of symptoms associated with these diseases, such as diarrhea, constipation or abdominal pain may overlap for the gluten related diseases, and furthermore they can be similar to those caused by various other intestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms underlying symptom generation are diverse for all these diseases. Some patients with celiac disease may remain asymptomatic or have only mild gastrointestinal symptoms and thus may qualify for the diagnosis of IBS in the general clinical practice. Similarly, the overlap of symptoms between IBS and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) often creates a dilemma for clinicians. While the treatment of NCGS is exclusion of gluten from the diet, some, but not all, of the patients with IBS also improve on a gluten-free diet. Both IBS and NCGS are common in the general population and both can coexist with each other independently without necessarily sharing a common pathophysiological basis. Although the pathogenesis of NCGS is not well understood, it is likely to be heterogeneous with possible contributing factors such as low-grade intestinal inflammation, increased intestinal barrier function and changes in the intestinal microbiota. Innate immunity may also play a pivotal role. One possible inducer of innate immune response has recently been reported to be amylase-trypsin inhibitor, a protein present in wheat endosperm and the source of flour, along with the gluten proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease)
Open AccessReview Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10398-10416; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125539
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 22 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm
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Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of 5-Hydroxyl-6,7,3′,4′,5′-Pentamethoxyflavone Isolated from Lantana ukambensis
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10388-10397; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125537
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc. is an African food and medicinal plant. Its red fruits are eaten and highly appreciated by the rural population. This plant was extensively used in African folk medicinal traditions to treat chronic wounds but also as anti-leishmanial or cytotoxic
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Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc. is an African food and medicinal plant. Its red fruits are eaten and highly appreciated by the rural population. This plant was extensively used in African folk medicinal traditions to treat chronic wounds but also as anti-leishmanial or cytotoxic remedies, especially in Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Kenya, or Ethiopia. This study investigates the in vitro bioactivity of polymethoxyflavones extracted from a L. ukambensis as anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic agents. We isolated two known polymethoxyflavones, 5,6,7,3′,4′,5′-hexamethoxyflavone (1) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (2) from the whole plant of L. ukambensis. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. These molecules were tested for the anti-proliferative, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects on human cancer cells. Among them, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (2) was selectively cytotoxic against monocytic lymphoma (U937), acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cell lines, but not against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors, at all tested concentrations. Moreover, this compound exhibited significant anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against U937 acute myelogenous leukemia cells. This study highlights the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (2) and provides a scientific basis of traditional use of L. ukambensis. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10369-10387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125536
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats
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The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, −0.42%; 95% CI, −0.61% to −0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, −0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, −0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.86 to −0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, −0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.48 to −0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10352-10368; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125540
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 2 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats,
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Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7) were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT) (groups I, II III), 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T) (groups IV, V, VI) and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII). Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview A Survey of Plant Iron Content—A Semi-Systematic Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10320-10351; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125535
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2822 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various
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Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word “iron” in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10307-10319; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125532
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and
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There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30) and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05), whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01). These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health) Printed Edition available
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