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Nutrients, Volume 7, Issue 12 (December 2015), Pages 9697-10537

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Open AccessArticle Dietary Protein Intake in Dutch Elderly People: A Focus on Protein Sources
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9697-9706; doi:10.3390/nu7125496
Received: 14 October 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (646 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to
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Introduction: Sufficient high quality dietary protein intake is required to prevent or treat sarcopenia in elderly people. Therefore, the intake of specific protein sources as well as their timing of intake are important to improve dietary protein intake in elderly people. Objectives: to assess the consumption of protein sources as well as the distribution of protein sources over the day in community-dwelling, frail and institutionalized elderly people. Methods: Habitual dietary intake was evaluated using 2- and 3-day food records collected from various studies involving 739 community-dwelling, 321 frail and 219 institutionalized elderly people. Results: Daily protein intake averaged 71 ± 18 g/day in community-dwelling, 71 ± 20 g/day in frail and 58 ± 16 g/day in institutionalized elderly people and accounted for 16% ± 3%, 16% ± 3% and 17% ± 3% of their energy intake, respectively. Dietary protein intake ranged from 10 to 12 g at breakfast, 15 to 23 g at lunch and 24 to 31 g at dinner contributing together over 80% of daily protein intake. The majority of dietary protein consumed originated from animal sources (≥60%) with meat and dairy as dominant sources. Thus, 40% of the protein intake in community-dwelling, 37% in frail and 29% in institutionalized elderly originated from plant based protein sources with bread as the principle source. Plant based proteins contributed for >50% of protein intake at breakfast and between 34% and 37% at lunch, with bread as the main source. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, with meat as the dominant source. Conclusion: Daily protein intake in these older populations is mainly (>80%) provided by the three main meals, with most protein consumed during dinner. More than 60% of daily protein intake consumed is of animal origin, with plant based protein sources representing nearly 40% of total protein consumed. During dinner, >70% of the protein intake originated from animal protein, while during breakfast and lunch a large proportion of protein is derived from plant based protein sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Protein, Exercise and Muscle Health in an Ageing Population)
Open AccessArticle The Family-Home Nutrition Environment and Dietary Intake in Rural Children
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9707-9720; doi:10.3390/nu7125495
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary
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Obesity and food insecurity rates are higher among rural compared to non-rural populations. Little is known, however, about how family-home environments influence childhood obesity-related behaviors, particularly in rural settings. This study examined associations between the family-home nutrition (FN) environment, food insecurity, and dietary intake (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, dairy, protein foods, and added sugars) in rural elementary school-age children (grades K-5/6; n = 102). Parents/caregivers completed surveys on FN, food insecurity, and the Block Kids Food Screener (BKFS). Body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated from measured height and weight. Approximately 33% of children were classified as overweight/obese and 28% of families were at-risk for food insecurity. Multivariable linear regression analyses examined associations between dietary intakes with FN and food insecurity. More favorable FN scores were associated with lower added sugar intake (B = −1.38, p = 0.04) and higher vegetable (B = 0.15, p < 0.001), fruit (B = 0.71, p = 0.01), and dairy (B = 0.31, p < 0.001) intakes. No significant associations were found between food insecurity and dietary intake. Given the association between higher FN scores and more favorable dietary intake, promoting healthy FN environments among rural children is warranted. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity in Paediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients: A United Kingdom Case Control Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9721-9733; doi:10.3390/nu7125494
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer. Groups were well matched for age and gender. Obese children had higher BMI z-scores (p = 0.006) and BMI centiles (p = 0.002) than participants with NAFLD. After adjusting for multiple hypotheses testing and controlling for differences in BMI, no differences in macro- or micronutrient intake were observed as assessed using either 24-h recall or 7-day FAD (p > 0.001). Under-reporting was prevalent (NAFLD 75%, Obese Control 87%: p = 0.15). Restrained eating behaviours were significantly higher in the NAFLD group (p = 0.005), who also recorded more steps per day than the obese controls (p = 0.01). In conclusion, this is the first study to assess dietary and activity patterns in a UK paediatric NAFLD population. Only a minority of cases and controls were meeting current dietary and physical activity recommendations. Our findings do not support development of specific dietary/ physical activity guidelines for children with NAFLD; promoting adherence with current general paediatric recommendations for health should remain the focus of clinical management. Full article
Open AccessArticle Chronic Zinc Deficiency Alters Chick Gut Microbiota Composition and Function
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9768-9784; doi:10.3390/nu7125497
Received: 11 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 27 November 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (2797 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host
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Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a prevalent micronutrient insufficiency. Although the gut is a vital organ for Zn utilization, and Zn deficiency is associated with impaired intestinal permeability and a global decrease in gastrointestinal health, alterations in the gut microbial ecology of the host under conditions of Zn deficiency have yet to be studied. Using the broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) model, the aim of this study was to characterize distinct cecal microbiota shifts induced by chronic dietary Zn depletion. We demonstrate that Zn deficiency induces significant taxonomic alterations and decreases overall species richness and diversity, establishing a microbial profile resembling that of various other pathological states. Through metagenomic analysis, we show that predicted Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways responsible for macro- and micronutrient uptake are significantly depleted under Zn deficiency; along with concomitant decreases in beneficial short chain fatty acids, such depletions may further preclude optimal host Zn availability. We also identify several candidate microbes that may play a significant role in modulating the bioavailability and utilization of dietary Zn during prolonged deficiency. Our results are the first to characterize a unique and dysbiotic cecal microbiota during Zn deficiency, and provide evidence for such microbial perturbations as potential effectors of the Zn deficient phenotype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zinc and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Effect of Replacing Animal Protein with Plant Protein on Glycemic Control in Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9804-9824; doi:10.3390/nu7125509
Received: 29 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1546 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Previous research on the effect of replacing sources of animal protein with plant protein on glycemic control has been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of this replacement on glycemic control
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Previous research on the effect of replacing sources of animal protein with plant protein on glycemic control has been inconsistent. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of this replacement on glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases through 26 August 2015. We included RCTs ≥ 3-weeks comparing the effect of replacing animal with plant protein on HbA1c, fasting glucose (FG), and fasting insulin (FI). Two independent reviewers extracted relevant data, assessed study quality and risk of bias. Data were pooled by the generic inverse variance method and expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed (Cochran Q-statistic) and quantified (I2-statistic). Thirteen RCTs (n = 280) met the eligibility criteria. Diets emphasizing a replacement of animal with plant protein at a median level of ~35% of total protein per day significantly lowered HbA1c (MD = −0.15%; 95%-CI: −0.26, −0.05%), FG (MD = −0.53 mmol/L; 95%-CI: −0.92, −0.13 mmol/L) and FI (MD = −10.09 pmol/L; 95%-CI: −17.31, −2.86 pmol/L) compared with control arms. Overall, the results indicate that replacing sources of animal with plant protein leads to modest improvements in glycemic control in individuals with diabetes. Owing to uncertainties in our analyses there is a need for larger, longer, higher quality trials. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02037321. Full article
Open AccessArticle Internal Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Following a Meal-Replacement Regimen vs. Comprehensive Lifestyle Changes in Obese Subjects
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9825-9833; doi:10.3390/nu7125500
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 1 November 2015 / Accepted: 11 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n =
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a meal-replacement regimen vs. comprehensive lifestyle changes in overweight or obese subjects on intra-abdominal fat stores (Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) measurements) and cardiometabolic risk factors. Forty-two obese men (n = 18) and women (n = 24) (age 49 ± 8 years; weight 96.3 ± 12.1 kg; BMI 32.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2) were selected for this randomized parallel-group design investigation. Subjects in the lifestyle group (LS-G; n = 22) received dietary counselling sessions and instructions how to increase physical activity. In the meal replacement group (MR-G; n = 20) meals were replaced by a low-calorie drink high in soy protein. After six months, subjects in the LS-G lost 8.88 ± 6.24 kg and subjects in the MR-G lost 7.1 ± 2.33 kg; p < 0.01 for changes within groups; no significant differences were found between the groups. Lean body mass remained constant in both intervention groups. MRI analyses showed that internal fat was significantly reduced in both groups to a comparable amount; the higher fat loss in the LS-G in the abdominal area was due to a higher reduction in subcutaneous fat. Both interventions significantly reduced components of the cardiometabolic risk profile and leptin levels. The decrease in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the MR-G. In conclusion, both interventions significantly reduced body weight, total fat mass and internal abdominal fat while preserving lean body mass. The reduction in the adipokines fetuin A and resistin was more pronounced in the meal replacement group suggesting an additional effect of soy protein components. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Maternal Low Quality Protein Diet Alters Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations of Weaning Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9847-9859; doi:10.3390/nu7125508
Received: 4 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (673 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on
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Several studies have indicated the influence of a maternal low protein diet on the fetus. However, the effect of a maternal low quality protein diet on fetal growth and development is largely unknown. Wistar rats (11 weeks old) were mated and maintained on either a chow diet with 20% casein (n = 6) as the control group (C), or a low quality protein diet with 20% wheat gluten (n = 7) as the experimental group (WG) through gestation and lactation. Maternal body weights were similar in both groups throughout the study. Birth weights were not influenced by maternal diet and offspring body weights during lactation were similar between the groups. Offspring’s plasma amino acid profiles showed that plasma methionine, glutamine and lysine were significantly lower and aspartic acid, ornithine and glycine-proline were significantly higher in the WG. Plant based protein comprises an important part of protein intake in developing countries. It is well-known that these diets can be inadequate in terms of essential amino acids. The current study shows differential effects of a maternal low quality protein diet on the offspring’s plasma amino acids. Future studies will examine further aspects of the influence of maternal low quality protein diets on fetal growth and development. Full article
Open AccessArticle Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9860-9871; doi:10.3390/nu7125504
Received: 24 October 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration
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The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. Full article
Open AccessArticle Recognising and Managing Refractory Coeliac Disease: A Tertiary Centre Experience
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9896-9907; doi:10.3390/nu7125506
Received: 22 October 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
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Abstract
Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare complication of coeliac disease (CD) and involves malabsorption and villous atrophy despite adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 12 months in the absence of another cause. RCD is classified based on the
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Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is a rare complication of coeliac disease (CD) and involves malabsorption and villous atrophy despite adherence to a strict gluten-free diet (GFD) for at least 12 months in the absence of another cause. RCD is classified based on the T-cells in the intra-epithelial lymphocyte (IEL) morphology into type 1 with normal IEL and type 2 with aberrant IEL (clonal) by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) for T cell receptors (TCR) at the β/γ loci. RCD type 1 is managed with strict nutritional and pharmacological management. RCD type 2 can be complicated by ulcerative jejunitis or enteropathy associated lymphoma (EATL), the latter having a five-year mortality of 50%. Management options for RCD type 2 and response to treatment differs across centres and there have been debates over the best treatment option. Treatment options that have been used include azathioprine and steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, campath (an anti CD-52 monoclonal antibody), and cladribine or fluadribine with or without autologous stem cell transplantation. We present a tertiary centre’s experience in the treatment of RCD type 2 where treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine was used, and our results show good response with histological recovery in 56.6% of treated individuals. Full article
Open AccessArticle Greater Calcium Intake is Associated with Better Bone Health Measured by Quantitative Ultrasound of the Phalanges in Pediatric Patients Treated with Anticonvulsant Drugs
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9908-9917; doi:10.3390/nu7125517
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 12 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS) and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) was measured in
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We aimed to investigate and compare the effects of chronic antiepileptic therapy on bone health in pediatric patients using quantitative ultrasound of the phalanges (QUS) and controlling for potential confounding factors, particularly nutrient intake. The amplitude-dependent speed of sound (Ad-SoS) was measured in 33 epileptic children and 32 healthy children aged 6.5 ± 3.1 and 6.3 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) years, respectively. There were no significant differences in the demographics such as age, weight and height between epileptic children and the control group children. None of the children in the epileptic or the treatment group were found to have a vitamin D deficiency. There were no significant differences in laboratory tests between groups. Lower QUS figures were found in the epileptic children (p = 0.001). After further adjustment for potential confounders such age, height, weight, calcium intake, vitamin D intake, physical activity and sex, the differences remained significant (p < 0.001). After further classification of the participants based on the tertile of calcium intake, no significant differences were found between patients and healthy controls in the greatest tertile of calcium intake (p = 0.217). We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy using valproate may lead to low bone mass in children and that an adequate intake of calcium might counteract such deleterious effects. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gestational Vitamin 25(OH)D Status as a Risk Factor for Receptive Language Development: A 24-Month, Longitudinal, Observational Study
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9918-9930; doi:10.3390/nu7125499
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (386 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emerging data suggest that vitamin D status during childhood and adolescence can affect neurocognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gestational 25(OH)D status is associated with early childhood cognitive and receptive language development. The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and
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Emerging data suggest that vitamin D status during childhood and adolescence can affect neurocognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gestational 25(OH)D status is associated with early childhood cognitive and receptive language development. The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood Study (CANDLE) study enrolled 1503 mother-child dyads during the second trimester of healthy singleton pregnancies from Shelby County TN. Among 1020 participants of the total CANDLE cohort for whom 25(OH)D levels were available, mean gestational 25(OH)D level during the second trimester was 22.3 ng/mL (range 5.9–68.4), with 41.7% of values <20 ng/dL. Cognitive and language scaled scores increased in a stair-step manner as gestational 25(OH)D levels in the second trimester rose from <20 ng/dL, through 20–29.99 ng/dL, to ≥30 ng/dL. When controlling for socioeconomic status, race, use of tobacco products, gestational age of the child at birth, and age at the 2-year assessment, the gestational 25(OH)D was positively related to receptive language development (p < 0.017), but not cognitive or expressive language. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
Open AccessCommunication A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831)
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9931-9945; doi:10.3390/nu7125507
Received: 7 July 2015 / Revised: 9 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological
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Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention) have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS). Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12612000827831. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protective Effect of Vanillic Acid against Hyperinsulinemia, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia via Alleviating Hepatic Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet (HFD)-Fed Rats
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9946-9959; doi:10.3390/nu7125514
Received: 24 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture
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Excess free fatty acid accumulation from abnormal lipid metabolism results in the insulin resistance in peripheral cells, subsequently causing hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and/or hyperlipidemia in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of phenolic acids on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell-culture model and on hepatic insulin resistance and inflammation in rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The results show that vanillic acid (VA) demonstrated the highest glucose uptake ability among all tested phenolic acids in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, rats fed HFD for 16 weeks were orally administered with VA daily (30 mg/kg body weight) at weeks 13–16. The results show that levels of serum insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and free fatty acid were significantly decreased in VA-treated HFD rats (p < 0.05), indicating the protective effects of VA against hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in HFD rats. Moreover, VA significantly reduced values of area under the curve for glucose (AUCglucose) in oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, suggesting the improving effect on glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in HFD rats. The Western blot analysis revealed that VA significantly up-regulated expression of hepatic insulin-signaling and lipid metabolism-related protein, including insulin receptor, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, glucose transporter 2, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase in HFD rats. VA also significantly down-regulated hepatic inflammation-related proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expressions in HFD rats. These results indicate that VA might ameliorate insulin resistance via improving hepatic insulin signaling and alleviating inflammation pathways in HFD rats. These findings also suggest the potential of VA in preventing the progression of DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle An Assessment of the Potential Impact of Fortification of Staples and Condiments on Micronutrient Intake of Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age in Bangladesh
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9960-9971; doi:10.3390/nu7125511
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (522 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-textRetraction
Abstract
Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old; 1428 children 6–14 years old; and
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Bangladesh has experienced rapid economic growth and achieved major health improvements in the past decade, but malnutrition rates remain high. A nationally representative study conducted in 2011 assessed the dietary habits of 841 children 24–59 months old; 1428 children 6–14 years old; and 1412 non-pregnant, non-lactating women. The study’s objective was to assess dietary intakes of key micronutrients and the consumption pattern of potentially fortifiable foods, and then to model the potential impact of fortification of key staple foods. The current intakes of several micronutrients, namely, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A and vitamin B12, were found to be insufficient to meet the needs of Bangladesh’s children and women. The fortification of rice with iron and zinc and edible oil with vitamin A has the potential to fill a significant part of the nutrient gap, as these are consumed widely and in significant amounts. Wheat flour and sugar are not as promising food vehicles in the Bangladeshi context, as they were consumed by a smaller portion of the population and in smaller amounts. In conclusion, fortification of rice and oil is recommended to address the large gap in micronutrient intakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and National Strategies to Impact Health)
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Open AccessArticle High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in Infertile Women Referring for Assisted Reproduction
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9972-9984; doi:10.3390/nu7125516
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (852 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D
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A comprehensive analysis of the vitamin D status of infertile women is the first step in understanding hypovitaminosis impact on reproductive potential. We sought to determine vitamin D profiles of women attending an infertility center and to investigate non-dietary determinants of vitamin D status in this population. In this cross-sectional analysis, a cohort of 1072 women (mean age ± standard deviation 36.3 ± 4.4 years) attending an academic infertility center was used to examine serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in relation to demographic characteristics, seasons and general health risk factors. Both unadjusted and adjusted levels of serum 25(OH)D were examined. Median 25(OH)D concentration was below 30 ng/mL for 89% of the entire year. Over the whole year, 6.5% of patients had 25(OH)D levels ≤10 ng/mL, 40.1% ≤20 ng/mL, and 77.4% ≤30 ng/mL. Global solar radiation was weakly correlated with 25(OH)D levels. At multivariable analysis, 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with BMI; conversely, 25(OH)D levels were positively associated with height and endometriosis history. Serum 25(OH)D levels are highly deficient in women seeking medical help for couple’s infertility. Levels are significantly associated with body composition, seasonal modifications and causes of infertility. Importantly, this deficiency status may last during pregnancy with more severe consequences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
Open AccessArticle Growing Strong and Healthy with Mister Bone: An Educational Program to Have Strong Bones Later in Life
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9985-9998; doi:10.3390/nu7125510
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract
Optimal peak bone mass and bone health later in life are favored by a sufficient calcium intake in infancy, childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a new educational program created to monitor and to improve calcium and vitamin
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Optimal peak bone mass and bone health later in life are favored by a sufficient calcium intake in infancy, childhood and adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a new educational program created to monitor and to improve calcium and vitamin D intake in children. Nutritional habits in children were evaluated through a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess the intake of calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and total caloric energy at baseline and after seven months of exposure to a unique educational program applied between November 2013 and May 2014 in 176 schoolchildren (48% male, 52% female) attending the fourth and fifth grades of two selected primary schools in Florence, Italy. A significant increase of calcium (from 870 ± 190 to 1100 ± 200 mg/day, p < 0.05), and vitamin D (from 3.6 ± 1.53 to 4.1 ± 2 µg/day) intake in children was documented after the educational program. The amount of specific foods important for bone health consumed, such as milk and vegetables, increased significantly, both in male and female children (p < 0.05). The proposed educational program appears to be effective in modifying calcium intake in children, with a significant increase in the consumption of dairy products and vegetables, but without a significant change in the total caloric intake. Full article
Open AccessArticle Concord Grape Juice Polyphenols and Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Dose-Response Relationships
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10032-10052; doi:10.3390/nu7125519
Received: 10 October 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract
Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice
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Pure fruit juices provide nutritional value with evidence suggesting some of their benefits on biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk may be derived from their constituent polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. However, few data from clinical trials are available on the dose-response relationship of fruit juice flavonoids to these outcomes. Utilizing the results of clinical trials testing single doses, we have analyzed data from studies of 100% Concord grape juice by placing its flavonoid content in the context of results from randomized clinical trials of other polyphenol-rich foods and beverages describing the same outcomes but covering a broader range of intake. We selected established biomarkers determined by similar methods for measuring flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), blood pressure, platelet aggregation, and the resistance of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) to oxidation. Despite differences among the clinical trials in the treatment, subjects, and duration, correlations were observed between the dose and FMD. Inverse dose-response relationships, albeit with lower correlation coefficients, were also noted for the other outcomes. These results suggest a clear relationship between consumption of even modest serving sizes of Concord grape juice, flavonoid intake, and effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This approach to dose-response relationships may prove useful for testing other individual foods and beverages. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10065-10075; doi:10.3390/nu7125512
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract
Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA) and rotundic acid (RA) were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level.
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Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA) and rotundic acid (RA) were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent. Full article
Open AccessArticle Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10076-10088; doi:10.3390/nu7125503
Received: 20 September 2015 / Revised: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract
This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic
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This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children. Full article
Open AccessArticle Change in Metabolic Profile after 1-Year Nutritional-Behavioral Intervention in Obese Children
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10089-10099; doi:10.3390/nu7125520
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
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Abstract
Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI), blood
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Research findings are inconsistent about improvement of specific cardio-metabolic variables after lifestyle intervention in obese children. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effect of a 1-year intervention, based on normocaloric diet and physical activity, on body mass index (BMI), blood lipid profile, glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome. Eighty-five obese children aged ≥6 years were analyzed. The BMI z-score was calculated. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for lipids, insulin and glucose. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated and insulin resistance was defined as HOMA-IR >3.16. HOMA-β%, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and triglyceride glucose index were calculated. The metabolic syndrome was defined in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. At the end of intervention children showed a reduction (mean (95% CI)) in BMI z-score (−0.58 (−0.66; −0.50)), triglycerides (−0.35 (−0.45; −0.25) mmol/L) and triglyceride glucose index (−0.29 (−0.37; −0.21)), and an increase in HDL cholesterol (0.06 (0.01; 0.11) mmol/L). Prevalence of insulin resistance declined from 51.8% to 36.5% and prevalence of metabolic syndrome from 17.1% to 4.9%. Nutritional-behavioral interventions can improve the blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity in obese children, and possibly provide benefits in terms of metabolic syndrome. Full article
Open AccessArticle Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the FADS Gene Cluster but not the ELOVL2 Gene are Associated with Serum Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Development of Allergy (in a Swedish Birth Cohort)
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10100-10115; doi:10.3390/nu7125521
Received: 9 September 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
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Abstract
Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms
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Exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) influences immune function and may affect the risk of allergy development. Long chain PUFAs are produced from dietary precursors catalyzed by desaturases and elongases encoded by FADS and ELOVL genes. In 211 subjects, we investigated whether polymorphisms in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL2 gene were associated with allergy or PUFA composition in serum phospholipids in a Swedish birth-cohort sampled at birth and at 13 years of age; allergy was diagnosed at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs102275 and rs174448 (FADS gene cluster) had decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord and adolescent serum and increased proportions of 20:3 n-6 in cord serum as well as a nominally reduced risk of developing atopic eczema, but not respiratory allergy, at 13 years of age. Minor allele carriers of rs17606561 in the ELOVL2 gene had nominally decreased proportions of 20:4 n-6 in cord serum but ELOVL polymorphisms (rs2236212 and rs17606561) were not associated with allergy development. Thus, reduced capacity to desaturase n-6 PUFAs due to FADS polymorphisms was nominally associated with reduced risk for eczema development, which could indicate a pathogenic role for long-chain PUFAs in allergy development. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations of Child Temperament with Child Overweight and Breakfast Habits: A Population Study in Five-Year-Olds
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10116-10128; doi:10.3390/nu7125522
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 3 December 2015
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Abstract
This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing,
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This study examines the associations of child temperament with overweight/obesity and breakfast habits. Participants were 17,409 five-year-olds whose mothers partake in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), and completed a questionnaire at the child’s 5th birthday. Temperament was assessed as externalizing, internalizing and sociable temperament. Breakfast habits differentiated between “every day”, “4 to 6 times a week”, and “0 to 3 times a week”. The child’s weight status was determined by Body Mass Index-percentiles and categorized as normal weight versus overweight/obese. Children with externalizing temperament had higher odds of being overweight and higher odds of not eating breakfast daily. Children high in internalizing temperament had higher odds of not eating breakfast daily, but not of being overweight. Children with average scores of sociability were more prone to being overweight but had normal breakfast habits. All results were adjusted for key confounders. That five-year-olds high in externalizing temperament had a higher risk to be overweight adds important information to the literature. The association of externalizing temperament with child breakfast habits so early in life is intriguing, as parents mostly control eating patterns in children that young. Mechanisms mediating this association should be explored. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10168-10178; doi:10.3390/nu7125525
Received: 13 November 2015 / Revised: 16 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
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Abstract
The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes
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The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the Incidence of Clostridium difficile Infection in High Risk Patients Treated with Antibiotics
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10179-10188; doi:10.3390/nu7125526
Received: 10 June 2015 / Revised: 24 September 2015 / Accepted: 10 October 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
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Abstract
Background: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP299v) has been used in order to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms during antibiotic exposure. However, it remains controversial whether or not probiotics are effective in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among patients receiving antibiotics. The aim of this
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Background: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP299v) has been used in order to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms during antibiotic exposure. However, it remains controversial whether or not probiotics are effective in the prevention of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) among patients receiving antibiotics. The aim of this study was to analyze the CDI among patients receiving antibiotics and hospitalized in the period before and after starting routine use of LP299v as a prevention of this infection. Methods: Among 3533 patients hospitalized in the nephrology and transplantation ward during a two-year period, 23 patients with CDI were diagnosed and enrolled in this retrospective study. Since November 2013, prevention of CDI with oral use of LP299v was performed in all patients treated with antibiotics and who were at a high risk of developing CDI. The observation period was divided into two twelve-month intervals before and after initiation of the use of LP299v as a prophylactic against CDI. Results: A significant (p = 0.0001) reduction of the number of cases of CDI was found after routinely using LP299v (n = 2; 0.11% of all hospitalized patients) compared with the previous twelve-month period of observation (n = 21; 1.21% of all hospitalized patients). Conclusions: Routine use of LP299v during treatment with antibiotics may prevent C. difficile infection in the nephrology and transplantation ward. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Doses that Minimize the Risk for Both Low and High Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in the General Population
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10189-10208; doi:10.3390/nu7125527
Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
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Abstract
The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the nutrient intake considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97.5% of the population. Recent reports revealed a statistical error in the calculation of the RDA for vitamin D opening the question of what the
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The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the nutrient intake considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97.5% of the population. Recent reports revealed a statistical error in the calculation of the RDA for vitamin D opening the question of what the recommendation should be. We took a dual approach to answer this question: (1) we aggregated 108 published estimates on vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D status; and (2) we analyzed 13,987 observations of program participants. The aggregation of published data revealed that 2909 IU of vitamin D per day is needed to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations of 50 nmol/L or more in 97.5% of healthy individuals. For normal weight, overweight and obese program participants this was 3094, 4450 and 7248 IU respectively. These supplementation doses would also result in 2.5% of normal weight, overweight and obese participants having 25(OH)D concentrations above 210, 200 and 214 nmol/L respectively. As these concentrations are high, an approach that minimizes the risk for both low and high concentrations seems desirable. With this approach we estimated, for example, that doses of 1885, 2802 and 6235 IU per day are required for normal weight, overweight and obese individuals respectively to achieve natural 25(OH)D concentrations (defined as 58 to 171 nmol/L). In conclusion, the large extent of variability in 25(OH)D concentrations makes a RDA for vitamin D neither desirable nor feasible. We therefore propose recommendations be articulated in the form of an optimal intake that minimizes the risk for both low and high serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This contribution includes body weight specific recommendations for optimal intakes for various combinations of lower and upper 25(OH)D concentration targets. Full article
Open AccessArticle Magnesium and Space Flight
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10209-10222; doi:10.3390/nu7125528
Received: 9 October 2015 / Revised: 30 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract
Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month
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Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children’s BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10223-10236; doi:10.3390/nu7125529
Received: 7 August 2015 / Revised: 28 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract
Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor
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Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening), starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI), and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
Open AccessArticle Fermented Brown Rice and Rice Bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA) Prevents Inflammation-Related Carcinogenesis in Mice, through Inhibition of Inflammatory Cell Infiltration
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10237-10250; doi:10.3390/nu7125531
Received: 27 October 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract
We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5%
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We have established an inflammation-related carcinogenesis model in mouse, in which regressive QR-32 cells subcutaneously co-implanted with a foreign body—gelatin sponge—convert themselves into lethal tumors due to massive infiltration of inflammatory cells into the sponge. Animals were fed with a diet containing 5% or 10% fermented brown rice and rice bran with Aspergillus oryzae (FBRA). In 5% and 10% FBRA diet groups, tumor incidences were lower (35% and 20%, respectively) than in the non-treated group (70%). We found that FBRA reduced the number of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the sponge. FBRA administration did not cause myelosuppression, which indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of FBRA took place at the inflammatory lesion. FBRA did not have antitumor effects on the implanted QRsP-11 tumor cells, which is a tumorigenic cell line established from a tumor arisen after co-implantation of QR-32 cells with sponge. FBRA did not reduce formation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanine adducts, a marker of oxidative DNA damage in the inflammatory lesion; however, it reduced expression of inflammation-related genes such as TNF-α, Mac-1, CCL3 and CXCL2. These results suggest that FBRA will be an effective chemopreventive agent against inflammation-related carcinogenesis that acts by inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration into inflammatory lesions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Impact of Health Labels on Flavor Perception and Emotional Profiling: A Consumer Study on Cheese
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10251-10268; doi:10.3390/nu7125533
Received: 21 September 2015 / Revised: 23 October 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
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Abstract
The global increase of cardiovascular diseases is linked to the shift towards unbalanced diets with increasing salt and fat intake. This has led to a growing consumers’ interest in more balanced food products, which explains the growing number of health-related claims on food
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The global increase of cardiovascular diseases is linked to the shift towards unbalanced diets with increasing salt and fat intake. This has led to a growing consumers’ interest in more balanced food products, which explains the growing number of health-related claims on food products (e.g., “low in salt” or “light”). Based on a within-subjects design, consumers (n = 129) evaluated the same cheese product with different labels. Participants rated liking, saltiness and fat flavor intensity before and after consuming four labeled cheeses. Even though the cheese products were identical, inclusion of health labels influenced consumer perceptions. Cheese with a “light” label had a lower overall expected and perceived liking compared to regular cheese. Although cheese with a “salt reduced” label had a lower expected liking compared to regular cheese, no lower liking was found when consumers actually consumed the labeled cheese. All labels also influenced the perceived intensities of the attributes related to these labels, e.g., for example salt intensity for reduced salt label. While emotional profiles of the labeled cheeses differed before tasting, little differences were found when actual tasting these cheeses. In conclusion, this study shows that health-related labels might influence the perceived flavor and emotional profiles of cheese products. Full article
Open AccessArticle Estimated Dietary Polyphenol Intake and Major Food and Beverage Sources among Elderly Japanese
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10269-10281; doi:10.3390/nu7125530
Received: 9 November 2015 / Revised: 9 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
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Abstract
Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any
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Estimating polyphenol intake contributes to the understanding of polyphenols’ health benefits. However, information about human polyphenol intake is scarce, especially in the elderly. This study aimed to estimate the dietary intake and major sources of polyphenols and to determine whether there is any relationship between polyphenol intake and micronutrient intake in healthy elderly Japanese. First, 610 subjects (569 men, 41 women; aged 67.3 ± 6.1 years) completed food frequency questionnaires. We then calculated their total polyphenol intake using our polyphenol content database. Their average total polyphenol intake was 1492 ± 665 mg/day, the greatest part of which was provided by beverages (79.1%). The daily polyphenol intake differed largely among individuals (183–4854 mg/day), also attributable mostly to beverage consumption. Coffee (43.2%) and green tea (26.6%) were the major sources of total polyphenol; the top 20 food items accounted for >90%. The polyphenol intake did not strongly correlate with the intake of any micronutrient, suggesting that polyphenols may exert health benefits independently of nutritional intake. The polyphenol intake in this elderly population was slightly higher than previous data in Japanese adults, and beverages such as coffee and green tea contributed highly to the intake. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Suboptimal Plasma Long Chain n-3 Concentrations are Common among Adults in the United States, NHANES 2003–2004
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10282-10289; doi:10.3390/nu7125534
Received: 1 November 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (531 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Population data on long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) status from biomarkers of dietary intake is lacking. The objectives were to describe plasma LCn-3 PUFA concentrations and compare them to concentrations associated with cardiovascular health and dietary recommendations for two servings of
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Population data on long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn-3 PUFA) status from biomarkers of dietary intake is lacking. The objectives were to describe plasma LCn-3 PUFA concentrations and compare them to concentrations associated with cardiovascular health and dietary recommendations for two servings of seafood/week. Fasting plasma fatty acids were measured among 1386 subjects ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2004. LCn-3 concentrations represent the sum of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid relative to total fatty acids (expressed as a percentage). Mean LCn-3 PUFA concentration was 2.07% (95% CI 1.95–2.19). Overall, 80.6% of participants had LCn-3 below concentrations recommended for cardiovascular health. Hispanic participants were the most likely to have LCn-3 PUFA below recommended levels. Nearly all participants (95.7%) had LCn-3 below concentrations associated with cardiovascular protection. Older participants (≥60 years) had higher LCn-3 PUFA concentrations than those aged 20–39 years but not aged 40–59 years. LCn-3 PUFA concentrations were lower for Hispanic participants relative to non-Hispanic black participants. Suboptimal LCn-3 concentrations are common among U.S. adults. These findings highlight the need to increase LCn-3 intake among Americans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Adherence to Guidelines for Cancer Survivors and Health-Related Quality of Life among Korean Breast Cancer Survivors
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10307-10319; doi:10.3390/nu7125532
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and
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There is limited evidence on the association between adherence to guidelines for cancer survivors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In a cross-sectional study of Korean breast cancer survivors, we examined whether adherence to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society (ACS) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) for cancer survivors was related to levels of HRQoL, assessed by the Korean version of Core 30 (C30) and Breast cancer module 23 (BR23) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ). We included a total of 160 women aged 21 to 79 years who had been diagnosed with breast cancer according to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stages I to III and had breast cancer surgery at least six months before the interview. Increasing adherence to ACS guidelines was associated with higher scores of social functioning (p for trend = 0.05), whereas increasing adherence to WCRF/AICR recommendations was associated with higher scores of arm symptoms (p for trend = 0.01). These associations were limited to those with stage II or III cancer. Diet may be an important factor in relation to quality of life among Korean breast cancer survivors, however our findings warrant further prospective studies to evaluate whether healthy diet improves survivors’ quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
Open AccessArticle Naringin Reverses Hepatocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress Associated with HIV-1 Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors-Induced Metabolic Complications
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10352-10368; doi:10.3390/nu7125540
Received: 4 May 2015 / Revised: 2 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 October 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats,
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Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) have not only improved therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of HIV infection but have also led to an increase in associated metabolic complications of NRTIs. Naringin’s effects in mitigating NRTI-induced complications were investigated in this study. Wistar rats, randomly allotted into seven groups (n = 7) were orally treated daily for 56 days with 100 mg/kg zidovudine (AZT) (groups I, II III), 50 mg/kg stavudine (d4T) (groups IV, V, VI) and 3 mL/kg of distilled water (group VII). Additionally, rats in groups II and V were similarly treated with 50 mg/kg naringin, while groups III and VI were treated with 45 mg/kg vitamin E. AZT or d4T treatment significantly reduced body weight and plasma high density lipoprotein concentrations but increased liver weights, plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol compared to controls, respectively. Furthermore, AZT or d4T treatment significantly increased oxidative stress, adiposity index and expression of Bax protein, but reduced Bcl-2 protein expression compared to controls, respectively. However, either naringin or vitamin E significantly mitigated AZT- or d4T-induced weight loss, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis compared to AZT- or d4T-only treated rats. Our results suggest that naringin reverses metabolic complications associated with NRTIs by ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. This implies that naringin supplements could mitigate lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia associated with NRTI therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of 5-Hydroxyl-6,7,3′,4′,5′-Pentamethoxyflavone Isolated from Lantana ukambensis
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10388-10397; doi:10.3390/nu7125537
Received: 3 November 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc. is an African food and medicinal plant. Its red fruits are eaten and highly appreciated by the rural population. This plant was extensively used in African folk medicinal traditions to treat chronic wounds but also as anti-leishmanial or cytotoxic
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Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc. is an African food and medicinal plant. Its red fruits are eaten and highly appreciated by the rural population. This plant was extensively used in African folk medicinal traditions to treat chronic wounds but also as anti-leishmanial or cytotoxic remedies, especially in Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Kenya, or Ethiopia. This study investigates the in vitro bioactivity of polymethoxyflavones extracted from a L. ukambensis as anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic agents. We isolated two known polymethoxyflavones, 5,6,7,3′,4′,5′-hexamethoxyflavone (1) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (2) from the whole plant of L. ukambensis. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. These molecules were tested for the anti-proliferative, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects on human cancer cells. Among them, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (2) was selectively cytotoxic against monocytic lymphoma (U937), acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cell lines, but not against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors, at all tested concentrations. Moreover, this compound exhibited significant anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against U937 acute myelogenous leukemia cells. This study highlights the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 5-hydroxy-6,7,3′,4′,5′-pentamethoxyflavone (2) and provides a scientific basis of traditional use of L. ukambensis. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10447-10468; doi:10.3390/nu7125543
Received: 8 November 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 12 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the
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The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST) was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a) dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b) applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal) and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium) as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nutrition Interventions for Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity: What Do Parents Want from an eHealth Program?
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10469-10479; doi:10.3390/nu7125546
Received: 11 August 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 7 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
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Abstract
With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents;
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With the growth of Internet technologies, offering interventions for child and family weight management in an online format may address barriers to accessing services. This study aimed to investigate (i) whether an eHealth family healthy lifestyle program would be of interest to parents; and (ii) preferences and/or expectations for program components and features. Parents of children aged four to18 years were recruited through social media and completed an online survey (54 items) including closed and open-ended questions. Responses were collated using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Seventy-five participants were included (92% mothers, mean age 39.1 ± 8.6 years, mean BMI 27.6 ± 6.3 kg/m2). The index child had a mean age of 11 ± 6.2 years with 24% overweight/obese. The majority of parents (90.3%) reported interest in an online program, with preference expressed for a non-structured program to allow flexibility users to log-on and off as desired. Parents wanted a program that was easy to use, practical, engaging, endorsed by a reputable source, and able to provide individual tailoring and for their children to be directly involved. The current study supports the need for online delivery of a healthy lifestyle program that targets greater parental concerns of diet rather than child weight. Full article
Open AccessArticle Anti-Obesity Effect of 6,8-Diprenylgenistein, an Isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata Fruits in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10480-10490; doi:10.3390/nu7125544
Received: 13 October 2015 / Revised: 5 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 15 December 2015
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG), a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice at the
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Obesity, which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation, is associated with several pathological disorders, including metabolic diseases. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 6,8-diprenylgenistein (DPG), a major isoflavonoid of Cudrania tricuspidata fruits was investigated using high fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg for six week. The body weight of the DPG-treated groups was significantly lower compared to the HFD-treated group. In addition, fat accumulation in epididymal adipose tissue and liver was dramatically decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. The food efficiency ratios of the HFD + DPG groups were also lower compared to the HFD group with the same food intake. Metabolic parameters that had increased in the HFD group were decreased in the HFD + DPG groups. Further studies demonstrate that DPG efficiently reduces lipogenic genes by regulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and hormones, such as leptin and adiponection. DPG also regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Taken together, DPG is beneficial for the regulation of obesity, especially resulting from high fat intake. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Dietary Salt Intake and Discretionary Salt Use in Two General Population Samples in Australia: 2011 and 2014
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10501-10512; doi:10.3390/nu7125545
Received: 1 October 2015 / Revised: 14 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (384 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011
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The limited Australian measures to reduce population sodium intake through national initiatives targeting sodium in the food supply have not been evaluated. The aim was, thus, to assess if there has been a change in salt intake and discretionary salt use between 2011 and 2014 in the state of Victoria, Australia. Adults drawn from a population sample provided 24 h urine collections and reported discretionary salt use in 2011 and 2014. The final sample included 307 subjects who participated in both surveys, 291 who participated in 2011 only, and 135 subjects who participated in 2014 only. Analysis included adjustment for age, gender, metropolitan area, weekend collection and participation in both surveys, where appropriate. In 2011, 598 participants: 53% female, age 57.1(12.0)(SD) years and in 2014, 442 participants: 53% female, age 61.2(10.7) years provided valid urine collections, with no difference in the mean urinary salt excretion between 2011: 7.9 (7.6, 8.2) (95% CI) g/salt/day and 2014: 7.8 (7.5, 8.1) g/salt/day (p = 0.589), and no difference in discretionary salt use: 35% (2011) and 36% (2014) reported adding salt sometimes or often/always at the table (p = 0.76). Those that sometimes or often/always added salt at the table and when cooking had 0.7 (0.7, 0.8) g/salt/day (p = 0.0016) higher salt excretion. There is no indication over this 3-year period that national salt reduction initiatives targeting the food supply have resulted in a population reduction in salt intake. More concerted efforts are required to reduce the salt content of manufactured foods, together with a consumer education campaign targeting the use of discretionary salt. Full article
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Area Measured by Computed Tomography with That Estimated by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Method in Korean Subjects
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10513-10524; doi:10.3390/nu7125548
Received: 2 October 2015 / Revised: 3 December 2015 / Accepted: 8 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
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Abstract
We evaluated the concordance between visceral fat area (VFA) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) or computed tomography (CT) in Korean subjects with a wide range in age and body mass index (BMI). In 1006 individuals (mean age 55.2 ± 11.8 (19–87) years,
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We evaluated the concordance between visceral fat area (VFA) estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) or computed tomography (CT) in Korean subjects with a wide range in age and body mass index (BMI). In 1006 individuals (mean age 55.2 ± 11.8 (19–87) years, mean BMI 26.0 ± 3.5 (17–46) kg/m2, 48.9% men), VFA quantified by CT was compared with VFA using multifrequency BIA machines within 15 days. Concordance rates were compared by age or BMI using correlation analysis, Bland-Altman plots, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Using BIA data, we established a regression formula to reflect CT-VFA. The mean VFAs by CT and BIA were 131.9 ± 57.3 cm2 and 110.5 ± 33.9 cm2, respectively (r = 0.605, p < 0.001). The mean difference was 21.4 ± 45.6 cm2, tending to increase with BMI. In women with BMI <25 kg/m2 or age <50 years, the VFAs by BIA were similar to those by CT (ICC = 0.496 in BMI <25 kg/m2 and ICC = 0.638 in age <50 years). However, the difference was greater in men with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 or age ≥50 years. Applying our formula, the difference between estimations decreased to 0.2 ± 38.2cm2. VFA estimated by BIA correlated well with that by CT, but a more accurate formula is needed to match CT data, particularly in older men or subjects with a high BMI. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10525-10537; doi:10.3390/nu7125552
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 17 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3117 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed
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Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)

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Open AccessReview Metabogenic and Nutriceutical Approaches to Address Energy Dysregulation and Skeletal Muscle Wasting in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9734-9767; doi:10.3390/nu7125498
Received: 26 August 2015 / Revised: 29 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 26 November 2015
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Abstract
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic muscle wasting disease with no current cure. A prominent, yet poorly treated feature of dystrophic muscle is the dysregulation of energy homeostasis which may be associated with intrinsic defects in key energy systems and promote
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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal genetic muscle wasting disease with no current cure. A prominent, yet poorly treated feature of dystrophic muscle is the dysregulation of energy homeostasis which may be associated with intrinsic defects in key energy systems and promote muscle wasting. As such, supplementative nutriceuticals that target and augment the bioenergetical expansion of the metabolic pathways involved in cellular energy production have been widely investigated for their therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of DMD. We describe the metabolic nuances of dystrophin-deficient skeletal muscle and review the potential of various metabogenic and nutriceutical compounds to ameliorate the pathological and clinical progression of the disease. Full article
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Open AccessReview The Emerging Role of Disturbed CoQ Metabolism in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Development and Progression
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9834-9846; doi:10.3390/nu7125501
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterised by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, is the most common liver disorder, the causes of its development and progression to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain incompletely understood. Oxidative stress has been implicated
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Although non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterised by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, is the most common liver disorder, the causes of its development and progression to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain incompletely understood. Oxidative stress has been implicated as a key factor in both these processes, and mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are also believed to play a part. Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a powerful antioxidant found in all cell membranes which has an essential role in mitochondrial respiration and also has anti-inflammatory properties. NAFLD has been shown to be associated with disturbances in plasma and liver CoQ concentrations, but the relationship between these changes and disease development and progression is not yet clear. Dietary supplementation with CoQ has been found to be hepatoprotective and to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation as well as improving mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting that it may be beneficial in NAFLD. However, studies using animal models or patients with NAFLD have given inconclusive results. Overall, evidence is now emerging to indicate that disturbances in CoQ metabolism are involved in NAFLD development and progression to NASH, and this highlights the need for further studies with human subjects to fully clarify its role. Full article
Open AccessReview Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9872-9895; doi:10.3390/nu7125505
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
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Abstract
The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a
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The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies—19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)—were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69–0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13–1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02–1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings. Full article
Open AccessReview Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10020-10031; doi:10.3390/nu7125515
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early
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Celiac disease (CD) is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided. Full article
Open AccessReview Copper-2 Ingestion, Plus Increased Meat Eating Leading to Increased Copper Absorption, Are Major Factors Behind the Current Epidemic of Alzheimer’s Disease
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10053-10064; doi:10.3390/nu7125513
Received: 20 June 2015 / Revised: 24 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer’s disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer’s disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson’s disease, which results in a
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It has become clear that copper toxicity is playing a major role in Alzheimer’s disease; but why is the brain copper toxicity with cognition loss in Alzheimer’s disease so much different clinically than brain copper toxicity in Wilson’s disease, which results in a movement disorder? Furthermore, why is the inorganic copper of supplement pills and in drinking water so much more damaging to cognition than the organic copper in food? A recent paper, which shows that almost all food copper is copper-1, that is the copper-2 of foods reverts to the reduced copper-1 form at death or harvest, gives new insight into these questions. The body has an intestinal transport system for copper-1, Ctr1, which channels copper-1 through the liver and into safe channels. Ctr1 cannot absorb copper-2, and some copper-2 bypasses the liver, ends up in the blood quickly, and is toxic to cognition. Humans evolved to handle copper-1 safely, but not copper-2. Alzheimer’s is at least in part, a copper-2 toxicity disease, while Wilson’s is a general copper overload disease. In this review, we will show that the epidemiology of the Alzheimer’s epidemic occurring in developed, but not undeveloped countries, fits with the epidemiology of exposure to copper-2 ingestion leached from copper plumbing and from copper supplement pill ingestion. Increased meat eating in developed countries is also a factor, because it increases copper absorption, and thus over all copper exposure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
Open AccessReview Advanced Glycation End Products: Link between Diet and Ovulatory Dysfunction in PCOS?
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10129-10144; doi:10.3390/nu7125524
Received: 21 August 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 24 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
PCOS is the most common cause of anovulation in reproductive-aged women with 70% experiencing ovulatory problems. Advanced glycation end products are highly reactive molecules that are formed by non-enzymatic reactions of sugars with proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. AGEs are also present in
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PCOS is the most common cause of anovulation in reproductive-aged women with 70% experiencing ovulatory problems. Advanced glycation end products are highly reactive molecules that are formed by non-enzymatic reactions of sugars with proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. AGEs are also present in a variety of diet where substantial increase in AGEs can result due to thermal processing and modifications of food. Elevation in bodily AGEs, produced endogenously or absorbed exogenously from high-AGE diets, is further exaggerated in women with PCOS and is associated with ovulatory dysfunction. Additionally, increased expression of AGEs as pro-inflammatory receptors in the ovarian tissue has been observed in women with PCOS. In this review, we summarize the role of dietary AGEs as mediators of metabolic and reproductive alterations in PCOS. Once a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between AGEs and anovulation is established, there is a promise that such knowledge will contribute to the subsequent development of targeted pharmacological therapies that will treat anovulation and improve ovarian health in women with PCOS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
Open AccessReview A Historical Review of Changes in Nutrition Standards of USDA Child Meal Programs Relative to Research Findings on the Nutritional Adequacy of Program Meals and the Diet and Nutritional Health of Participants: Implications for Future Research and the Summer Food Service Program
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10145-10167; doi:10.3390/nu7125523
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs) (National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) were established in 1946 (NSLP) and 1975 (SBP and SFSP) to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There
[...] Read more.
Background: The USDA child meal programs (CMPs) (National School Lunch Program (NSLP), School Breakfast Program (SBP), and Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) were established in 1946 (NSLP) and 1975 (SBP and SFSP) to improve the diet and nutritional health of US children. There is concern that participation in these programs may in fact be a contributor to the current childhood obesity epidemic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the CMPs are meeting their intended goal by reviewing the historical changes to nutrition standards of the CMPs in correspondence with the literature that examines the nutritional adequacy of meals served as part of these programs, as well as the dietary intakes and nutritional status of participants. Methods: Public Law and the Federal Register were reviewed and websites and online databases were systematically searched. Results: NSLP and SBP first underwent updates to the nutrition standards in 1994 and subsequently 2010, whereas SFSP last underwent modifications in 2000. The majority of data, all collected prior to 2010, demonstrate that meals served as part of the NSLP and SBP are not meeting nutrition standards. In addition, the dietary intakes of NSLP and SBP participants are high in calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and low in fiber. Studies examining the weight status and other nutrition-related health outcomes of NSLP and SBP participants have produced mixed results. In contrast, no studies published in the peer-reviewed literature have been conducted examining the nutritional adequacy of SFSP meals or the dietary intakes or nutritional health of SFSP participants. There are public reports available on the nutritionally adequacy of SFSP meals, however, they are severely outdated (1988 and 2003). Due to this dearth of information, a case study on a sample SFSP menu from summer 2015 was conducted; results showed that the meals are high in carbohydrate and protein content and insufficient in vegetable servings. Conclusions: There is critical need for policy change that would enable updates to the SFSP nutrition standards to match those of the NSLP and SBP. In addition, strategies are needed to facilitate development of CMP menus that meet current nutrition standards. Finally, rigorously designed studies are needed to understand the direct impact of CMP participation on child diet and health, particularly the SFSP for which there is limited published data. Full article
Open AccessReview A Review of the Cognitive Effects Observed in Humans Following Acute Supplementation with Flavonoids, and Their Associated Mechanisms of Action
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10290-10306; doi:10.3390/nu7125538
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 1 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in varying concentrations in many plant-based foods. Recent studies suggest that flavonoids can be beneficial to both cognitive and physiological health. Long term flavonoid supplementation over a period of weeks or months has been extensively investigated and reviewed,
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Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds found in varying concentrations in many plant-based foods. Recent studies suggest that flavonoids can be beneficial to both cognitive and physiological health. Long term flavonoid supplementation over a period of weeks or months has been extensively investigated and reviewed, particularly with respect to cognitive ageing and neurodegenerative disease. Significantly less focus has been directed towards the short term effects of single doses of flavonoids on cognition. Here, we review 21 such studies with particular emphasis on the subclass and dose of flavonoids administered, the cognitive domains affected by flavonoid supplementation, and the effect size of the response. The emerging evidence suggests that flavonoids may be beneficial to attention, working memory, and psychomotor processing speed in a general population. Episodic memory effects are less well defined and may be restricted to child or older adult populations. The evidence also points towards a dose-dependent effect of flavonoids, but the physiological mechanisms of action remain unclear. Overall, there is encouraging evidence that flavonoid supplementation can benefit cognitive outcomes within an acute time frame of 0–6 h. But larger studies, combining cognitive and physiological measures, are needed to strengthen the evidence base. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition in Cognitive Function)
Open AccessReview A Survey of Plant Iron Content—A Semi-Systematic Review
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10320-10351; doi:10.3390/nu7125535
Received: 15 September 2015 / Revised: 18 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various
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Iron is an essential mineral nutrient for all living organisms, involved in a plurality of biological processes. Its deficit is the cause of the most common form of anemia in the world: iron deficiency anemia (IDA). This paper reviews iron content in various parts of 1228 plant species and its absorption from herbal products, based on data collected from the literature in a semi-systematic manner. Five hundred genera randomly selected from the Angiosperms group, 215 genera from the Pteridophytes groups and all 95 Gymnosperm genera as listed in the Plant List version 1.1 were used as keywords together with the word “iron” in computerized searches. Iron data about additional genera returned by those searches were extracted and included in the analysis. In total, iron content values for a number of 1228 species, 5 subspecies, and 5 varieties were collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare iron contents in various plant parts (whole plant, roots, stems, shoots, leaves, aerial parts, flowers, fruits, seeds, wood, bark, other parts) and exploratory analyses by taxonomic groups and life-forms were carried out. The absorption and potential relevance of herbal iron for iron supplementation are discussed. Full article
Open AccessReview The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10369-10387; doi:10.3390/nu7125536
Received: 29 September 2015 / Revised: 11 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats
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The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, −0.42%; 95% CI, −0.61% to −0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, −0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, −0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.86 to −0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, −0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.48 to −0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. Full article
Open AccessReview Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10398-10416; doi:10.3390/nu7125539
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 22 November 2015 / Accepted: 2 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm
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Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. Full article
Open AccessReview The Overlap between Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity: A Clinical Dilemma
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10417-10426; doi:10.3390/nu7125541
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 25 November 2015 / Accepted: 4 December 2015 / Published: 10 December 2015
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Abstract
The spectrum of gluten-related disorders has widened in recent times and includes celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. The complex of symptoms associated with these diseases, such as diarrhea, constipation or abdominal pain may overlap for the gluten related diseases, and
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The spectrum of gluten-related disorders has widened in recent times and includes celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, and wheat allergy. The complex of symptoms associated with these diseases, such as diarrhea, constipation or abdominal pain may overlap for the gluten related diseases, and furthermore they can be similar to those caused by various other intestinal diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The mechanisms underlying symptom generation are diverse for all these diseases. Some patients with celiac disease may remain asymptomatic or have only mild gastrointestinal symptoms and thus may qualify for the diagnosis of IBS in the general clinical practice. Similarly, the overlap of symptoms between IBS and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) often creates a dilemma for clinicians. While the treatment of NCGS is exclusion of gluten from the diet, some, but not all, of the patients with IBS also improve on a gluten-free diet. Both IBS and NCGS are common in the general population and both can coexist with each other independently without necessarily sharing a common pathophysiological basis. Although the pathogenesis of NCGS is not well understood, it is likely to be heterogeneous with possible contributing factors such as low-grade intestinal inflammation, increased intestinal barrier function and changes in the intestinal microbiota. Innate immunity may also play a pivotal role. One possible inducer of innate immune response has recently been reported to be amylase-trypsin inhibitor, a protein present in wheat endosperm and the source of flour, along with the gluten proteins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Zinc in Early Life: A Key Element in the Fetus and Preterm Neonate
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10427-10446; doi:10.3390/nu7125542
Received: 8 August 2015 / Revised: 23 November 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
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Abstract
Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc.
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Zinc is a key element for growth and development. In this narrative review, we focus on the role of dietary zinc in early life (including embryo, fetus and preterm neonate), analyzing consequences of zinc deficiency and adequacy of current recommendations on dietary zinc. We performed a systematic search of articles on the role of zinc in early life. We selected and analyzed 81 studies. Results of this analysis showed that preservation of zinc balance is of critical importance for the avoidance of possible consequences of low zinc levels on pre- and post-natal life. Insufficient quantities of zinc during embryogenesis may influence the final phenotype of all organs. Maternal zinc restriction during pregnancy influences fetal growth, while adequate zinc supplementation during pregnancy may result in a reduction of the risk of preterm birth. Preterm neonates are at particular risk to develop zinc deficiency due to a combination of different factors: (i) low body stores due to reduced time for placental transfer of zinc; (ii) increased endogenous losses; and (iii) marginal intake. Early diagnosis of zinc deficiency, through the measurement of serum zinc concentrations, may be essential to avoid severe prenatal and postnatal consequences in these patients. Typical clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency are growth impairment and dermatitis. Increasing data suggest that moderate zinc deficiency may have significant subclinical effects, increasing the risk of several complications typical of preterm neonates (i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis, chronic lung disease, and retinopathy), and that current recommended intakes should be revised to meet zinc requirements of extremely preterm neonates. Future studies evaluating the adequacy of current recommendations are advocated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Zinc and Human Health)

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Open AccessConference Report Second International Congress on Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine Held in Barcelona, Spain, 25–26th September 2015
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9785-9803; doi:10.3390/nu7125502
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 13 November 2015 / Accepted: 16 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
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Open AccessConference Report Proceedings of the 2015 Meeting of the Australasian Section of the American Oil Chemists’ Society (AAOCS)
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 9999-10019; doi:10.3390/nu7125518
Received: 17 November 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Edible Oils: Looking Back Thinking Forward)
Open AccessConference Report Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging—Statement from an Expert Workshop
Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10491-10500; doi:10.3390/nu7125547
Received: 6 December 2015 / Accepted: 10 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
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Abstract
A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has
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A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations. Full article

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