Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3299-3310; doi:10.3390/nu5083299
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Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome

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Received: 2 June 2013; in revised form: 30 July 2013 / Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 19 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Docosahexaenoic Acid and Human Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been used to treat a range of different conditions, including periodontal disease (PD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). That DHA helps with these oral and gastrointestinal diseases in which inflammation and bacterial dysbiosis play key roles, raises the question of whether DHA may assist in the prevention or treatment of other inflammatory conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome, which have also been linked with inflammation and alterations in normal host microbial populations. Here we review established and investigated associations between DHA, PD, and IBD. We conclude that by beneficially altering cytokine production and macrophage recruitment, the composition of intestinal microbiota and intestinal integrity, lipopolysaccharide- and adipose-induced inflammation, and insulin signaling, DHA may be a key tool in the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
Keywords: inflammation; periodontal disease; inflammatory bowel disease; metabolic syndrome; bacterial dysbiosis; microbiome; DHA; docosahexaenoic acid; omega-3; fatty acid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tabbaa, M.; Golubic, M.; Roizen, M.F.; Bernstein, A.M. Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3299-3310.

AMA Style

Tabbaa M, Golubic M, Roizen MF, Bernstein AM. Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3299-3310.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tabbaa, Maria; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F.; Bernstein, Adam M. 2013. "Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3299-3310.

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